Wednesday, June 28, 2017

PRO> Hantavirus - Americas (37): Panama (LS) [EXTERNAL]

HANTAVIRUS - AMERICAS (37): PANAMA (LOS SANTOS)
***********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Tue 27 Jun 2017
Source: Panama America [in Spanish, trans. Mod.TY, edited]
<http://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/provincias/confirmado-madre-e-hijo-con-hantavirus-en-los-santos-1074983>


A mother and son are positive for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome
in the Los Santos province.

The Ministry of Health reported that these patients, 56 and 37 years
old, respectively, are residents of Las Tablas and currently in stable
condition in the Anita Moreno Hospital in La Villa, Los Santos.

These are the 1st 2 positive cases with cardiopulmonary syndrome since
febrile [hantavirus infection] cases were reported over the past
months [not cardiopulmonary syndrome cases].

The 2 patients are being attended to in the intensive care unit of
that hospital in La Villa.

In 2016, there were no cases of hantavirus [infection], whereas in
2015, 25 cases were registered.

[Byline: Zenaida Vásquez]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a serious disease and
can develop quickly, with a case fatality rate of around 30 percent.

This report does not give any details about the circumstances that led
to the infections nor specify the hantavirus involved in this case. As
noted in comments on previous cases, Los Santos and adjoining
provinces are endemic for Choclo hantavirus. Although no data on these
or the previous cases in earlier years include an indication of which
hantavirus is responsible, Choclo is the only one of the 3
hantaviruses known to be endemic in Panama that causes HPS.

In the report above, no mention is made of the ecological setting in
which the infection occurred. The croplands and food sources of the
area, such as stored grain, attract the rodent host of Choclo virus.
The preventive measures indicated in previous reports included
elimination of sites attractive to rodents. No vaccine is available
for Choclo virus.

The rodent host of Choclo virus is the pygmy rice rat (_Oligoryzomys
fulvescens_), a photograph of which can be accessed at
<http://www.medwave.cl/medios/perspectivas/Hantavirus/Actualiz/Fig2.jpg>.
These rodents occur in and around agricultural areas and adjacent
houses and buildings.

Maps of Panama can be accessed at
<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama.jpg> and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/41718>. - Mod.TY]

[See Also:
Hantavirus - Americas (31): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170519.5048919
Hantavirus - Americas (19): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170225.4864834
2016
----
Hantavirus update - Americas (44): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161101.4600491
Hantavirus update - Americas (41): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160831.4453226
2015
----
Hantavirus update - Americas (39): Panama (HE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20151105.3767763
Hantavirus update - Americas (30): Panama (VR) susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20150709.3496121
Hantavirus update - Americas (29): Panama (LS) UK ex Panama
http://promedmail.org/post/20150703.3483819
Hantavirus update - Americas (24): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150613.3434094
Hantavirus update - Americas (22): Panama (VR)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150522.3380419
Hantavirus update - Americas (21): Panama (HE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150508.3350963
Hantavirus update - Americas (18): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150427.3324786
Hantavirus update - Americas (16): Panama (VR), susp, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20150416.3300864
Hantavirus update - Americas (11): Panama (LS,CC)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150401.3271301
Hantavirus update - Americas (10): Panama (HE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150328.3261405
Hantavirus update - Americas (09): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150313.3228561
Hantavirus update - Americas (07): Panama (HE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150219.3178683
Hantavirus update - Americas (06): Panama (HE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150215.3168851
Hantavirus update - Americas (05): Panama (HE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150205.3146342
Hantavirus update - Americas (04): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150204.3140834
Hantavirus update - Americas (03): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150131.3134361
Hantavirus update - Americas (02): Panama (LS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150130.3132560]
.................................................sb/ml/ty/msp/ml
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Posted on 6/28/2017 04:49:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax - India (09): (AD) caprine, human conf. [EXTERNAL]

ANTHRAX - INDIA (09): (ANDHRA PRADESH) CAPRINE, HUMAN CONFIRMED
***************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Wed 28 Jun 2017
Source: The New Indian Express News Service [edited]
<http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/andhra-pradesh/2017/jun/28/five-tribals-with-suspected-skin-anthrax-test-positive-1621697.html>


The 5 patients from Kodupunjuvalasa village of Araku Valley who are
undergoing treatment for skin infections at the King George Hospital
(KGH) have been tested positive for cutaneous anthrax.

Confirming the same, the doctors at KGH said that a group of people
from the village consumed the meat of a goat that was already infected
with _Bacillus anthracis_, the causal organism of cutaneous anthrax,
some 3 weeks ago.

A few of the group developed some skin rashes, but with the condition
of 5 people -- KK (60), JS (45), J Gundu (50), PG (38) and GM (33) --
deteriorating, they were admitted into the KGH last Saturday with
suspected anthrax symptoms, like skin ulcers and pustules. The reports
for the samples that were sent to the lab for testing arrived on
Tuesday [27 Jun 2017], and the patients were tested positive.

"The cutaneous anthrax spores can thrive for more than 70 years in the
soil. The animals get the spores into their stomachs while grazing.
Tribals contract infection if they eat the infected meat or through
cuts and abrasions in their body while cutting the animal flesh,"
explained B Balachandrudu, HoD of the dermatology department of KGH.

However, he said that cutaneous anthrax is not fatal, for it can be
cured with regular [antibiotics]. "As the disease spreads mostly
during the monsoon, it can be prevented if the people become careful
while eating meat of dead infected animals. Besides, the animal
husbandry department should identify the areas prone to the disease
and administer vaccines to the domestic animals," he added.

Meanwhile, the district administration has deployed a team of health
officials to organise medical camps in the village and its surrounding
habitations. DM&HO Uma Sundari has sent a letter to the DRDE
laboratory in Gwalior. "A team will be visiting the place very soon
and collect samples from soil and animals. The areas vulnerable to
such diseases will be identified," she said.

Asked about the vaccination drive in the entire agency area, the DM&HO
said that unless the animals are affected, there is no need for
vaccination.

"Anthrax was reported in Hukumpeta mandal last year [2016], and the
animals in that area are being administered vaccines, which will
continue for 5 years. Now, similar steps will be taken for
Kodupunjuvalasa too," she said.

Soon after the suspected anthrax cases came to light, the medical and
health authorities were instructed to organise special camps in all
areas surrounding Kodipunjuvalasa.

According to the DM&HO, the disease, which spreads from animals to
humans, can be prevented by educating the locals to bury the dead
animals deep in the soil or at places far away from human habitations.
Meanwhile, HRD minister Ganta Srinivasa Rao visited KGH and interacted
with the patients.

With around 100 houses in Kodupunjuvalasa village, the residents share
farm produce, food and other provisions. "The goat was not keeping
well and stopped taking fodder properly for 2 days. So, we killed it
and cooked the meat. After 20 days, some of us got skin infections,
and it gradually spread to hands and feet," said GM, a patient.

According to the tribals, it is the 1st time that such a case was
reported from the village. However, a similar case was reported in
Padmapuram Panchayat near Kodipunjuvalasa village some 2 years ago.
But the residents said poor sanitation in the locality results in
spreading of malaria and typhoid regularly.

"The government has provided funds for the construction of toilets.
But, people are [not?] maintaining them properly. Viral infections are
regular phenomena in the village. But, now anthrax is scaring us, as
we are in a habit of eating meat," Mangalayya said.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[I would be surprised if the animal anthrax was limited to just one
goat. For starters, goats are browsers and primarily eat the leaves
off bushes and scrub. The latter get contaminated by blow flies, after
feeding on a carcass, go to the leaves, and vomit up their blood meal.
They then eat the clotted blood, and the vegetative cells in what
remains sporulate and infect the next goat that comes browsing. If the
villagers had slaughtered, butchered, and consumed a previous sick
animal but no one fell ill, they probably would not mention it.

For a description and pictures of the area, and a map, go to:
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araku_Valley>. - Mod.MHJ

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/297>.]

[See Also:
Anthrax - India (08): (AD) human, suspected
http://promedmail.org/post/20170626.5131786
Anthrax - India (07): (OR) beef jerky
http://promedmail.org/post/20170609.5094916
Anthrax - India (06): (JH) elephant
http://promedmail.org/post/20170604.5082309
Anthrax - India (05): (OR) elephant
http://promedmail.org/post/20170403.4944438
Anthrax - India (04): (OR) human, livestock susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20170327.4928734
Anthrax - India (03): (OR) human, livestock susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20170320.4913093
Anthrax - India (02): (OR) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20170319.4911773
2016
----
Anthrax - India (13): (AP) human, bovine, outbreak conf
http://promedmail.org/post/20160509.4210721
Anthrax - India (12): (AP) human, bovine, patients self-discharge
http://promedmail.org/post/20160505.4203982
Anthrax - India (11): (AP) human, bovine, new cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20160504.4202148
Anthrax - India (10): (AP) human, bovine, NOT
http://promedmail.org/post/20160429.4191980
Anthrax - India (09): (AP) human, bovine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160428.4189530
2015
----
Anthrax - India (18): (AP) human, susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20150929.3679190
Anthrax - India (17): (AP) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20150928.3675916
2014
----
Anthrax - India (13): (AP) human, susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20141031.2919774
2013
----
Anthrax - India (11): (AP) ovine
http://promedmail.org/post/20130910.1935043
Anthrax - India (09): (AP)
http://promedmail.org/post/20130620.1782568
Anthrax - India (08): (AP)
http://promedmail.org/post/20130619.1780633
Anthrax - India (07): (AP) caprine source, susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20130617.1778236
2012
----
Anthrax, livestock - India (AP)
http://promedmail.org/post/20120316.1072713
Anthrax, contaminated ground water - India: (AP)
http://promedmail.org/post/20120109.1004671
2011
----
Anthrax, human, livestock - India (06): (AP) wildlife
http://promedmail.org/post/20110802.2328
2010
----
Anthrax, lion - India: (AP) zoo
http://promedmail.org/post/20100424.1323]
.................................................mhj/msp/ml
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information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Posted on 6/28/2017 04:45:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> MERS-CoV (43): Saudi Arabia, WHO [EXTERNAL]

MERS-COV (43): SAUDI ARABIA, WHO
********************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

In this update:
[1] Saudi Arabia - WHO update 28 Jun 2017 (11-15 Jun 2017)
[2] Saudi Arabia - Saudi MOH 28 Jun 2017

******
[1] Saudi Arabia - WHO update 28 Jun 2017 (11-15 Jun 2017)
Date: Wed 28 Jun 2017
Source: WHO Emergencies preparedness, response [edited]
<http://www.who.int/csr/don/28-june-2017-mers-saudi-arabia/en/>


Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) - Saudi Arabia
[28 Jun 2017]
--------------------------------
Between [16 and 23 Jun 2017], the national IHR Focal Point of Saudi
Arabia reported 7 additional cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including 2 deaths, and 4 deaths
among previously reported cases.

Details of the cases
Three of the 7 newly reported cases are associated with clusters 1 and
3 as reported in the Disease Outbreak News published on [13 Jun 2017
and 19 Jun 2017].

Cluster 1
An additional 2 cases have been reported in this cluster in Riyadh
City, Riyadh Region. In total, 34 laboratory-confirmed cases reported
to WHO are associated with this cluster.

Cluster 2
No newly reported cases are associated with cluster 2 as reported in
the Disease Outbreak News published on [13 Jun 2017].

Cluster 3
An additional case has been reported in this cluster in Riyadh City,
Riyadh Region. Thus far, this cluster involves 9 laboratory-confirmed
patients.

Globally, 2036 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV
including at least 710 related deaths have been reported to WHO.

Public health response
The Ministry of Health is evaluating each case and their contacts and
is still implementing the measures to limit further human-to-human
transmission and bring these outbreaks to a control as described in
the DON published on [19 Jun 2017].

Line listing of newly confirmed cases from 11-15 Jun 2017
Case no. / Date report WHO / City of residence / Age / Sex / HCW /
Co-morbidities / Camel exposure / Camel milk / Exposure to other cases
/ Date of onset of symptoms / Date of hospitalization / Date of lab
confirmation / Status / Date of outcome

1 / 2017-06-16 / Riyadh / 68 / M / No / Yes / No / No / Yes† /
2017-06-13 / 2017-05-28** / 2017-06-15 / Deceased / 2017-06-16
2 / 2017-06-17 / Riyadh / 41 / F / Yes / No / No / No / Yes† / NA /
NA / 2017-06-17 / Alive
3 / 2017-06-18 / Hofouf 71 / M / No / Yes / NA / NA / NA / 2017-06-10
/ 2017-06-15 / 2017-06-17 / Alive
4 / 2017-06-18 / Thadiq City / 22 / M / No / No / NA / NA / NA /
2017-06-16 / 2017-06-17 / 2017-06-18 / Alive
5 / 2017-06-19 / Riyadh / 42 / M / No / No / No / No / Yes† / NA /
NA / 2017-06-18 / Alive
6 /2017-06-22 / Yanbu City / 85 / M / No / Yes / NA / NA / NA /
2017-06-16 / 2017-06-19 / 2017-06-21 / Deceased / 2017-06-22
7 / 2017-06-23 / Baha / 70 / M / No / Yes / NA / NA / NA / 2017-06-22
/ 2017-06-16 / 2017-06-23 / Alive

†Case was detected through contact tracing of a previous MERS-CoV
case.
**Hospitalized for other unrelated condition prior to symptom onset.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Marianne Hopp

******
[2] Saudi Arabia - Saudi MOH 28 Jun 2017
Date: Wed 28 Jun 2017
Source: Saudi MOH 28 Jun 2017 [edited]
<http://www.moh.gov.sa/en/CCC/PressReleases/Pages/statistics-2017-06-28-001.aspx>


Date: Tue 27 Jun 2017
Source: Saudi MOH 19-27 Jun 2017 [edited]
<http://www.moh.gov.sa/en/CCC/PressReleases/Pages/default.aspx?PageIndex=1>


As of today [Tue 27 Jun 2017], there have been a total of:
1671 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection, including
677 deaths [reported case fatality rate 40.5 percent],
970 recoveries, and
24 currently active cases/infections.

[As previously mentioned, the numbers of deaths, recoveries and
currently active cases come from my spreadsheet tallies and differ
from those listed on the Saudi MOH website; my spreadsheet counts
asymptomatic infections.]

Since the last ProMED-mail update [27 Jun 2017], there have been a
total of:
0 newly confirmed cases/infections
0 newly reported fatalities, and
2 newly reported recoveries.

Information on newly reported recoveries:
- both were from Riyadh
- both were involved in the nosocomial transmission clusters
- both were non-Saudi nationals
- both were asymptomatic contacts of previously confirmed cases

1- A 29-year-old male, non-healthcare worker, with no co-morbidities,
reported on 5 Jun 2017. Classified as secondary healthcare acquired
case in a patient.
2- A 45-year-old female, healthcare worker, with no co-morbidities,
reported on either 7 or 12 Jun 2017. Classified as secondary
healthcare acquired case in a healthcare worker.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[According to the above WHO update, as of 23 Jun 2017, there have been
a total of 2036 laboratory confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV
reported to WHO, including at least 710 related deaths. It appears as
though clusters 1 and 3 of the nosocomial outbreaks have continued to
report new cases. albeit at a significantly reduced pace than
previously. Cases were reported from additional cities outside of
Riyadh city, including Hufoof in Ash Sharqiyah region, Yanbu City in
Al Madinah region and Baha city in Riyadh Region. Of note is
confirmation that the case reported from Thadiq City on 18 Jun 2018
was the case reported from Riyadh by the MOH. Of note is that case no.
2 from the WHO update above was reported to have been a recovery on 21
Jun 2017.

In the past 24 hours, there have been no newly confirmed MERS-CoV
infections.

The HealthMap/ProMED map of Saudi Arabia can be found at:
<http://www.healthmap.org/promed/p/131>. - Mod.MPP]

[See Also:
MERS-CoV (42): Saudi Arabia (RI, SH, MD), WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20170628.5136101
MERS-CoV
(41): Saudi Arabia (RI, SH)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170620.5117143
MERS-CoV
(40): animal reservoir, camels, review, FAO
http://promedmail.org/post/20170619.5115999
MERS-CoV
(39): Saudi Arabia (RI), nosocomial transmission
http://promedmail.org/post/20170615.5108781
MERS-CoV
(38): Saudi Arabia (RI), nosocomial transmission, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20170613.5102806
MERS-CoV
(37): Saudi Arabia (RI), nosocomial transmission, fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170611.5098598
MERS-CoV
(36): Saudi Arabia (RI), nosocomial transmission
MERS-CoV (35): Saudi Arabia (RI), nosocomial and household
transmission http://promedmail.org/post/20170608.5093008
MERS-CoV
(34): Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20170606.5087888
MERS-CoV
(33): Saudi Arabia (RI), nosocomial transmission
http://promedmail.org/post/20170605.5085681
MERS-CoV
(32): Saudi Arabia (RI,MD)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170604.5083353
MERS-CoV
(31): Saudi Arabia (MK,RI) nosocomial transmission
http://promedmail.org/post/20170604.5082194
MERS-CoV
(30): Saudi Arabia (RI,MD,MK)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170602.5077920
MERS-CoV
(27): Saudi Arabia (RI,AS,QS) nosocomial transmission
http://promedmail.org/post/20170519.5049088
MERS-CoV
(20): Qatar, Saudi Arabia, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20170404.4947466
MERS-CoV
(10): Saudi Arabia (SH, MK)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170202.4811346
MERS-CoV
(04): Saudi Arabia (MK, QS), nosocomial outbreak, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20170110.4754928
MERS-CoV
(02): Saudi Arabia (QS) nosocomial transmission
http://promedmail.org/post/20170107.4748974
MERS-CoV
(01): Saudi Arabia (QS,RI,MD), RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20170105.4744802
2016
----
MERS-CoV (123): Saudi Arabia (MK, AS) new cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20161231.4734758
MERS-COV
(01): Oman, Saudi Arabia
http://promedmail.org/post/20160105.3911188
2015
----
MERS-COV (167): acute management and long-term survival
http://promedmail.org/post/20151231.3904300
MERS-CoV
(01): Saudi Arabia, new cases, new death
http://promedmail.org/post/20150104.3069383
2014
----
MERS-CoV (69): Saudi Arabia, new case, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20141230.306305
MERS-CoV
(01): Bangladesh, KSA, Algeria, UAE, Iran, WHO, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20140616.2541707
MERS-CoV
- Eastern Mediterranean (82): anim res, camel,
seroepidemiology http://promedmail.org/post/20140613.2537848
MERS-CoV
- Eastern Mediterranean (01): Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20140103.2150717
2013
----
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (106): animal reservoir, camel,
Qatar, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20131231.2145606
MERS-CoV
- Eastern Mediterranean: Saudi Arabia, new case, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20130518.1721601
Novel coronavirus - Eastern Mediterranean (29): MERS-CoV, ICTV
nomenclature http://promedmail.org/post/20130516.1717833
Novel coronavirus - Eastern Mediterranean: bat reservoir
http://promedmail.org/post/20130122.1508656
2012
----
Novel coronavirus - Eastern Mediterranean (06): comments
http://promedmail.org/post/20121225.1468821
Novel coronavirus - Eastern Mediterranean: WHO, Jordan, conf., RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20121130.1432498
Novel coronavirus - Saudi Arabia (18): WHO, new cases, cluster
http://promedmail.org/post/20121123.1421664
Novel coronavirus - Saudi Arabia: human isolate
http://promedmail.org/post/20120920.1302733]
.................................................mpp/msp/ml
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ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Posted on 6/28/2017 04:42:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (07): control hypothesis [EXTERNAL]

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE, CERVID - USA (07): CONTROL HYPOTHESIS
**************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

[1]
Date: Mon 26 Jun 2017
Source: New York Times [edited]
<https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/26/science/chronic-wasting-disease-deer-elk-prions.html>


Dr. Zabel and his colleagues are developing plans to burn plots of
National Park Service land in Arkansas and Colorado. If the
experiments turn out as the researchers hope, they will spare some elk
and deer a gruesome death.

Across a growing swath of North America, these animals are dying from
a mysterious disorder called chronic wasting disease. It's caused not
by a virus or bacterium, but a deformed protein called a prion.

When ingested, prions force normal proteins in the animal's body to
become deformed as well. Over the course of months, the multiplying
prions can gradually wreck the animal's nervous system, ultimately
killing it.

This year is the 50th anniversary of the discovery of chronic wasting
disease. In the September issue of Microbiology and Molecular Biology
Reviews, Dr. Zabel, an immunologist at Colorado State University, and
his former graduate student Aimee Ortega survey what scientists have
learned about the slow-spreading plague. [Link below. - Mod.MHJ]

[It is a lengthy article and interested member should go to the NYT
site to read the full article. - Mod.MHJ]

[Byline: Mark D. Zabel]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[2]
Date: Wed 31 May 2017
Source: Microbiology & Molecular Biology Reviews [edited]
<http://mmbr.asm.org/content/81/3/e00001-17.abstract>


Ref: Mark Zabel and Almee Ortega. The Ecology of Prions. Microbiol Mol
Biol Rev. 2017;81(3). pii: e00001-17. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00001-17.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Summary
-------
"Chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects cervids and is the only known
prion disease readily transmitted among free-ranging wild animal
populations in nature. The increasing spread and prevalence of CWD
among cervid populations threaten the survival of deer and elk herds
in North America, and potentially beyond. This review focuses on prion
ecology, specifically that of CWD, and the current understanding of
the role that the environment may play in disease propagation. We
recount the discovery of CWD, discuss the role of the environment in
indirect CWD transmission, and consider potentially relevant
environmental reservoirs and vectors. We conclude by discussing how
understanding the environmental persistence of CWD lends insight into
transmission dynamics and potential management and mitigation
strategies."

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[This is a valuable review of the ecology of CWD and the authors float
the hypothesis that control might be achieved by burning deer grazing.
The key paragraph in their review article reads (without references):

"Controlled burning of landscapes in North America helps to mitigate
fire danger in drought-stricken areas, in some of which CWD is
endemic. Burning of plants, feces, and topsoil in these areas may
reduce the low-level prion infectivity present in these areas. While
the burn temperature and duration are certainly much lower than those
attained in the experiments for which Brown et al. reported residual
prion infectivity, naturally CWD contaminated areas certainly contain
many orders of magnitude less prion infectivity than prion-infected
SRM [specified risk material]. Prescribed burning may sufficiently
lower prion titers on landscapes to at least impede the indirect
transmission of CWD. Combined with directed hunter harvests,
systematic culling, and targeted implementation of CWD vaccines, we
may be able to stem the slow but steady spread of CWD across the
landscape."

Taking a flame thrower to an obviously contaminated site may well do
some good but to a suspected meadow or normal deer habitat raises
significant questions. I wish them luck. - Mod.MHJ

]

[See Also:
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (06): (KS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170615.5108561
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (05): (PA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170517.5041465
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (04): (IA), RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20170205.4816305
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (03): (TX) wild :
http://promedmail.org/post/20170127.4795630
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (02): (MN) captive
http://promedmail.org/post/20170122.4782828
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA: (PA) captive
http://promedmail.org/post/20170119.4775957
2016
----
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (22): (WY)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161223.4720665
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (21): (AR) NOT
http://promedmail.org/post/20161218.4706073
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (20): (TX) elk
http://promedmail.org/post/20161209.4686234
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (19): (MN,AR)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161202.4672701
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (18): (AR) elk, correction
http://promedmail.org/post/20161119.4641222
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (17): (AR) elk
http://promedmail.org/post/20161118.4637245
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (16): (WI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161002.4530266
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - North America: antemortem test
research http://promedmail.org/post/20160803.4389614
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (15): (CO)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160718.4353091
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (14): (TX)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160707.4331795
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (12): (TX,AR)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160403.4136701
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (11): (AR) deer
http://promedmail.org/post/20160311.4084862
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (10): (TX)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160227.4055538
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (09): (AR) comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20160225.4048337
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (08): (AR)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160224.4047558
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (07): environmental
contamination http://promedmail.org/post/20160219.4035779
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (06): (IA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160218.4032600
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (05): (TX)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160207.4001329
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (04): (WI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160131.3982305
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (03): (NE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160129.3976986
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (02): (WI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160120.3950428
Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA: (MI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160113.3932621]
.................................................sb/ml/mhj/ao/ml
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Posted on 6/28/2017 04:34:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Panleukopenia virus, feline - USA: (GA) cat shelter [EXTERNAL]

PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS, FELINE - USA: (GEORGIA) CAT SHELTER
********************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Mon 26 Jun 2017, 6:08 PM
Source: WSBTV [edited]
<http://www.wsbradio.com/news/local/animal-shelter-under-quarantine-for-killer-cat-virus/kGe1PAbh6jqXTczoxBWEEP/>


A contagious virus [panleukopenia virus] has forced dozens of animals
to be removed from the Bartow County Animal Shelter. The state has now
placed the Cartersville facility under cat quarantine.

Animal control officers say the cats were exposed to "feline
distemper", an especially contagious virus that came in from a single
cat, either stray or surrendered, that didn't have the proper
vaccination.

The county and the Etowah Humane Society convinced the Fur Kids rescue
in Doraville to take the cats in hopes that they can be cleared for
adoption. [Mon 26 Jun 2017] morning, dozens of cats got shots and were
then loaded up for a trip to the rescue in DeKalb County. Some of the
cats are already symptomatic and will receive medical treatment. "It's
a very ugly disease," Animal Control Deputy Director Tommy Gentry
said. "Right now, we can't even pet them. We can't even touch them."

A total of 3 cats have already been euthanized and even veteran animal
control employees are feeling it. "Twenty-seven years of doing it, it
gets a little rough when a cat's put to sleep for no reason," Gentry
said. "You can't save them all but the ones you can save are very
gratifying." Feline distemper is the same disease as Parvo in dogs. It
starts with vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and often leads to
death.

Gentry says Bartow County residents are getting frustrated that animal
control is unable to respond to cat calls. He says the county is
scrubbing down the facility and they hope to be reopened to cats
within the next 72 hours.

Fur Kids says the cats will remain quarantined until [Sun 9 Jul 2017],
then will be free for adoption. In the meantime, the rescue is looking
for donors to help defray the cost.

[Byline: Jim Strickland]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[It is not unusual to see cases in shelters and boarding facilities.
So make sure your cat is vaccinated before you drop her off.

Feline panleukopenia is a highly contagious, often fatal, viral
disease of cats that is seen worldwide. Kittens are affected most
severely. The causative parvovirus [FPV] is very resistant; it can
persist for 1 year at room temperature in the environment, if
protected in organic material. Feline panleukopenia is now diagnosed
infrequently by veterinarians, presumably as a consequence of
widespread vaccine use. However, infection rates remain high in some
unvaccinated cat populations, and the disease occasionally is seen in
vaccinated, pedigreed kittens that have been exposed to a high virus
challenge.

Virus particles are abundant in all secretions and excretions during
the acute phase of illness and can be shed in the feces of survivors
for as long as 6 weeks after recovery. Being highly resistant to
inactivation, parvoviruses can be transported long distances via
fomites (such as shoes and clothing). However, FPV can be destroyed by
exposure to a 1:32 dilution of household bleach (6 percent aqueous
sodium hypochlorite), 4 percent formaldehyde, and 1 percent
glutaraldehyde for 10 min at room temperature. Peroxygen disinfectants
are also highly effective.

Cats are infected oro-nasally by exposure to infected animals, their
feces, secretions, or contaminated fomites. Most free-roaming cats are
thought to be exposed to the virus during their 1st year of life.
Those that develop subclinical infection or survive acute illness
mount a robust, long-lasting, protective immune response.

FPV infects and destroys actively dividing cells in bone marrow,
lymphoid tissues, intestinal epithelium, and -- in very young animals
--cerebellum and retina. In pregnant queens, the virus may spread
transplacentally (across the placenta) to cause embryonic resorption,
fetal mummification, abortion, or stillbirth. Alternatively, infection
of kittens in the perinatal period may destroy the germinal epithelium
of the cerebellum, leading to cerebellar hypoplasia (disorder found in
cats and dogs in which the cerebellum is not completely mature at
birth), incoordination, and tremor. FPV-induced cerebellar ataxia has
become a relatively rare diagnosis, because most queens passively
transfer sufficient antibodies to their kittens to protect them during
the period of susceptibility.

Most infections are subclinical, as evidenced by the high
seroprevalence of anti-FPV antibodies among unvaccinated, healthy
cats. Those cats that become ill are usually less than 1 year old.
Peracute cases may die suddenly with little or no warning (fading
kittens). Acute cases show fever (104-107 deg F [40-41.7 deg C]),
depression, and anorexia after an incubation period of 2-7 days.
Vomiting usually develops 1-2 days after the onset of fever; it is
typically bilious and unrelated to eating. Diarrhea may begin a little
later but is not always present. Extreme dehydration develops rapidly.
Affected cats may sit for hours at their water bowl, although they may
not drink much. Terminal cases are hypothermic and may develop septic
shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Physical examination typically reveals profound depression,
dehydration, and sometimes abdominal pain. Abdominal palpation --which
can induce immediate vomiting -- may reveal thickened intestinal loops
and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. In cases of cerebellar
hypoplasia, ataxia and tremors with normal mentation are seen. Retinal
lesions, if present, appear as discrete gray foci.

The duration of this self-limiting illness is seldom greater than 5-7
days. Mortality is highest in young kittens less than 5 months old.

A presumptive diagnosis is usually based on compatible clinical signs
in an inadequately vaccinated cat and the presence of leucopenia (low
white cell count). Neutropenia (low neutrophil count) is a more
consistent finding than lymphopenia. Total WBC (white blood cell)
counts less than 2000 cells/microliter are associated with a poorer
prognosis. During recovery from infection, there is typically a
rebound neutrophilia with a marked left shift. Diagnosis can sometimes
be confirmed using an in-office immunochromatographic test kit
intended for detection of fecal CPV [canine parvovirus] antigen.
However, fecal antigen is detectable only for a short time after
infection. False-negative results are common.

Successful treatment of acute cases requires vigorous fluid therapy
and supportive nursing care in the isolation unit. Electrolyte
disturbances (such as hypokalemia), hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia,
anemia, and opportunistic secondary infections often develop in
severely affected cats. Anticipation of these possibilities, close
monitoring, and prompt intervention are likely to improve outcome.
Intravenous (IV) fluid replacement and maintenance with a balanced
isotonic crystalloid solution (such as lactated Ringer's solution with
calculated potassium supplementation) is the foundation of therapy. B
vitamins should be added to the infusion, together with 5 percent
glucose if hypoglycemia is suspected or proved. In addition to
crystalloid infusion, transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma helps support
plasma oncotic pressure and provides clotting factors to severely ill,
hypoproteinemic kittens. Whole blood is preferable for the occasional
cat that is severely anemic. Parenteral, broad-spectrum antibiotic
therapy is indicated; however, nephrotoxic drugs (such as gentamicin,
amikacin) should be avoided until dehydration has been corrected.
Antiemetic therapy (such as metoclopramide, ondansetron, maropitant)
may provide some relief and allow earlier enteral feeding of soft,
easily digested food. Parenteral nutrition is indicated for severely
affected cases. Recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN; 1
MU/kg/day SC for 3 days) should be considered for use in the treatment
of feline panleukopenia. Although rFeIFN is not approved by the FDA
for this purpose, it is approved and effective in the treatment of
canine parvoviral enteritis.

Excellent inactivated and modified live virus vaccines that provide
solid, long-lasting immunity are available for prevention of feline
panleukopenia. Live vaccines should not be given to cats that are
pregnant, immunosuppressed, or sick, or to kittens less than 4 weeks
old. Most authorities recommend that kittens receive 2 or 3 modified
live vaccine doses subcutaneously, 3-4 weeks apart. The 1st
vaccination is usually given at 6-9 weeks of age. The last dose of the
initial vaccination series should not be administered before the
kitten is 16 weeks old, to ensure that interfering maternal antibodies
do not inactivate the modified live virus. Exposure to virus should be
avoided until 1 week after the initial vaccination series has been
completed. Cats should be revaccinated 1 year later, and triennially
or less frequently thereafter, although some manufacturers continue to
recommend annual revaccination.

Portions of this comment have been extracted from
<http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/generalized_conditions/feline_panleukopenia/overview_of_feline_panleukopenia.html>
and copied from the 2016 report. See also
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feline_panleukopenia>. - Mod.MHJ]

[Cartersville is 43 miles NW of Atlanta, within the northwest edge of
the Atlanta metropolitan area
(<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartersville,_Georgia>). - MOD.ML]

[The state of Georgia can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail
interactive map at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/213>.
A county map can be seen at
<http://geology.com/county-map/georgia-county-map.gif>. - CopyEd.AO]

[See Also:
2016
----
Panleukopenia virus, feline - USA: (MA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161021.4574695
2015
----
Panleukopenia virus, feline - Australia: (VI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150430.3332544
2004
----
Panleukopenia virus, feline - USA (MI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20040810.2203]
.................................................sb/ml/tg/mhj/ao/ml
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and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
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or archived material.
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Posted on 6/28/2017 04:11:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/EDR> Sepsis - Venezuela: (Caracas) fatal, pediatric hemodialysis unit [EXTERNAL]

SEPSIS - VENEZUELA: (CARACAS) FATAL, PEDIATRIC HEMODIALYSIS UNIT
****************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Mon 26 Jun 2017, 9:48 AM
Source: El Universal [in Spanish, machine trans., edited]
<http://www.eluniversal.com/noticias/caracas/fallece-cuarto-nino-infectado-unidad-hemodialisis-del-los-rios_658662>


The NGO Prepara Familia, which supports mothers and patients of
Children's Hospital J.M. of los Ríos, reported that on [Sun 25 Jun
2017] night, a two year old [boy] died in intensive care, the 4th
child infected in the hemodialysis unit of this pediatric center.

The first was a 10 year-old, who died on[3 May 2017] and was
contaminated with _Klebsiella_ germ. In less than 8 days, a 12
[year-old] died and on [22 May 2017], a 16-year-old boy.

Prepara Familia and Codevida emphasize that the hemodialysis unit, the
osmosis plant and the tanks of the J.M hospital must undergo a
rigorous disinfection process and demand compliance with the
established protocols.

At the end of April [2017], mothers of patients at the J.M. of los
Ríos reported the contagion of 15 children from the Nephrology ward
with infections such as _Klebsiella_, _Staphylococcus_ and
_Pseudomonas_. It is presumed that the causes of the contagion are
associated with poor water quality, since the 3 tanks of the hospital
present fecal coliforms and aerobic mesophiles [?] in high values.

Intermittent administration of antibiotics would have prevented the
infection from subsiding.

A total of 11 466 infants died in 2016, which represents 30.12 percent
more deaths than in 2015, according to the epidemiological report by
the Venezuelan Ministry of Health, after 3 years without official
data.

The highest number of deaths occurred in Zulia state (northwest), with
1409 cases; Carabobo (center), 928; Aragua (center), 888; Bolivar
(southeast), 802, and Capital District (center), with 735 deaths.

Among the most frequent causes of death are neonatal sepsis,
pneumonia, hyaline membrane disease and premature birth.

--
Communicated by:
Kathryn Soderholm
<kathryn.soderholm@gmail.com>

[Bacterial sepsis is a major complication of chronic hemodialysis and
is due mainly to infections of the vascular access site. It occurs
more commonly in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) than
internal arteriovenous (AV) fistulas or AV grafts. CVC-related
infections are associated with high morbidity, mortality, and costs.
CVC infections include exit site infection, tunnel infection, and
bacteremia; however, bacteremias are the most clinically important
because of their common occurrence and potential for multi-organ
failure and shock to develop.

Most CVC infections are due to Gram-positive organisms, such as
_Staphylococcus aureus_, especially methicillin-resistant _S. aureus_
(MRSA). Gram-negative bacterial species are isolated less commonly.
Risk factors include poor patient hygiene, previous CVC infection,
recent hospitalization, longer duration of catheter use, _S. aureus_
nasal carriage, and diabetes mellitus.

Microorganisms adhere to the catheter and develop within a biofilm
that forms on the catheter surfaces. Organisms can gain access to the
bloodstream after colonizing the cutaneous vascular access site and
migrating along either the tract exterior to the catheter or organisms
are transferred by contact from the hands of individuals (usually
health-care workers) while accessing the CVC, or from the patient's
skin/surrounding clothing, to catheter hubs or caps, resulting in the
contamination of luminal catheter surfaces.

Another potential source for bacteremia, especially Gram-negative
bacillary bacteremia, is microbial contamination of the dialysate,
which the above article presumes is the cause of sepsis in a cluster
of pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis in Venezuela. The main
water source for hemodialysis is the local drinking water supply to
which electrolyte concentrate is added to form the dialysate.
Gram-negative microbial contamination of the dialysate may release
endotoxins that can cause transmembrane stimulation of circulating
immune cells in the patient's blood to release proinflammatory
cytokines that produce fever and other symptoms of sepsis. However,
because of the pore diameter of the intact dialysis membrane, it is
thought that passage of organisms across the dialyzer member from the
contaminated dialysate to the bloodstream is unlikely to occur, as
long as the dialysis membrane is undamaged (Suki WN, Massry SG.
Therapy of Renal Diseases and Related Disorders, 3rd ed., page 1020
<https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1475766327>).

JM de los Ríos (or José Manuel de los Ríos Children's Hospital) is
a pediatric public health center in the city of Caracas, the capital
of Venezuela
<https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospital_de_Niños_J._M._de_los_R%C3%ADos>.
- Mod.ML

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/5818>.]

.................................................ml/ao/ml
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Posted on 6/28/2017 02:23:00 PM | Categories:

Join the 1%


28 June 2017
Dear Colleagues,

When we started the current ProMED fund raising campaign, I listed five reasons why I reach out to subscribers twice a year:

7,453 reports on infectious disease outbreaks ProMED posted last year.
55 eminent infectious disease and public health experts on staff.
60 countries reported on in the past month.
8 geographic and language specific networks.
84,000 subscribers in 201 countries.

Since that letter went out to you on in mid-May, ProMED has posted over 900 reports of infectious diseases and toxic events worldwide. ProMED has always provided its readers with an astonishingly wide breadth of news and information; in this short period, we've covered everything from avian influenza to Zika, keeping you informed of ongoing infectious disease situations - cholera, diarrhea and dysentery; measles; chikungunya; Dengue; and many others - and brought to your attention anomalies such as trypanosomiasis in The Netherlands, and rarities like "seal finger" in Canada.

In response to my letters this spring, ProMED has received 164 donations totaling $15,912.00. Thank you to those who have responded! We sincerely appreciate your support.

But this number represents a tiny percentage of ProMED subscribers. In fact, so far this year only 1% of ProMED readers have contributed to support an information resource that 66% of subscribers say is very important to them. If you haven't yet contributed to ProMED, please ask yourself:

Do I support a global mission to improve health?
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If you answer yes to any of these questions, please support ProMED today.
Give what you can afford, but please give!
 
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Posted on 6/28/2017 02:19:00 PM | Categories: