Wednesday, March 29, 2017

PRO/AH/EDR> Infectious salmon anemia - Faroe Islands: (HV)

INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA - FAROE ISLANDS: (HVANNASUND)
******************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: Fish Update [edited]
<http://www.fishupdate.com/bakkafrost-confirms-isa-outbreak/>


Bakkafrost today disclosed that its suspicions of pathogenic ISA
[infectious salmon anemia] virus at one of its farms has now been
confirmed.

The big Faroe Islands fish farmer said the problem was centred at the
farming site A-73 Hvannasund Norour, which has been under increased
surveillance since July last year [2016], when routine tests resulted
in suspicion of fish being infected by ISA virus.

After the original alert, extensive tests were carried out with the
purpose of confirming these suspicions, but none of the results from
these tests proved the presence of a pathogenic ISA virus.

However, more tests were carried out in January this year [2017],
which again raised suspicions. These were at 2 cages, one of which was
suspected last summer [2016].

Bakkafrost then decided to take immediate action and harvested all the
fish in these 2 cages while at the same time keeping a close watch on
the site.

A company statement said: "The accelerated harvest is expected to be
finished by the middle of April [2017], and Bakkafrost maintains
expected harvest volumes for 2017 to be 53 500 tonnes gutted weight,
unchanged from the market announcement on 16 Mar 2017. The
confirmation of pathogenic ISA virus at farming site A-73 Hvannasund
Norour results in a prolonged fallowing period of 6 months at a
minimum for farming site A-73 Hvannasund Norour, after the farming
site is emptied for fish."

The discovery is plainly a setback for the company but one it can and
has managed effectively. Three weeks ago, it reported substantially
increased profits for the 4th quarter of 2016, with a total operating
EBIT (earnings before interest and tax) of 349.6 million Danish
kroners (DKK) [USD 50.6 million] compared to DKK 257 million [USD 37
million] for the 4th quarter in 2015.

[Byline: Jenny Hjul]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[ISA is a disease of Atlantic salmon (_Salmo salar_) caused by an
orthomyxovirus and affects mainly fish maintained in marine water or
exposed to the sea. The disease can be systemic and lethal,
characterized by severe anemia and hemorrhages in several organs.

It is a disease of great economic impact for the salmon industry. The
disease is of obligatory notification to the OIE. - Mod.PMB

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/11909>.]

[See Also:
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway: (FI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170104.4742438
2016
----
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile (02): (AI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161219.4709584
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile: (AI) virus detection
http://promedmail.org/post/20160427.4186982
2014
----
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway (03): (TR) conf, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140314.2332213
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway (02): (TR) susp, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20140306.2315036
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway: (NO) OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140304.2313363
2013
----
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile (03): (AY) new strain isolated, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20131207.2097559
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway (03): OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20130627.1796345
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway (02): OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20130530.1744412
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway: OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20130207.1531567
Infectious salmon anemia - Canada (02): (NF)
http://promedmail.org/post/20130728.1850041
Infectious salmon anemia - Canada: (NF) susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20130606.1757060Infectious salmon anemia -
Chile: (AY) http://promedmail.org/post/20130410.1635553
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway: OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20130207.1531567
2012
----
Infectious salmon anemia - Canada (05): (NF)
http://promedmail.org/post/20121220.1461133
Infectious salmon anemia - Norway: OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20120523.1142430
2011
----
Infectious salmon anemia - Canada: (BC) Pacific, 1st rep
http://promedmail.org/post/20111019.3120
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/20111029.3217
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile
http://promedmail.org/post/20110730.2287
2010
----
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile
http://promedmail.org/post/20100820.2909
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile (02): (MA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20101109.4064
2009
----
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile
http://promedmail.org/post/20090715.2526
Infectious salmon anemia - Chile (02): origin
http://promedmail.org/post/20090719.2568]
.................................................sb/pmb/msp/jh
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Posted on 3/29/2017 04:10:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/EDR> Measles update (15)

MEASLES UPDATE (15)
*******************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

In this update:
[1] Romania
[2] Syria
[3] Ireland (Cork)
[4] Europe
[5] USA (Nebraska)
[6] Somalia


******
[1] Romania
Date: Sun 26 Mar 2017
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/europe-measles-update-romania-outbreak-now-3800-cases-92581/>


A measles outbreak in Romania has been ongoing since February 2016 and
cases continue to be reported despite ongoing response measures that
have been implemented at national level through reinforced vaccination
activities, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention
and Control (ECDC). From September 2016 to 17 Mar 2017, Romania has
reported 3799 cases.

In Italy, about 700 cases reported so far this year [2017], in Germany
more than 200 cases and in Belgium more than 100 cases. Dozens of
cases have also been reported from France, Spain, Hungary and Austria.
In some countries, the spread of infection has occurred among health
care workers.

Measles is caused by a virus belonging to the paramyxovirus [family].
The disease is one of the most infectious diseases that exists.
Measles virus excreted by breathing the air and spread through air
droplets (aerosols). Susceptible people infected via the respiratory
tract or mucous membranes of the eyes.

The incubation period is 7-18 days, usually about 10 days. At the
onset, measles is acute with rapidly rising fever, eye irritation and
increasingly troublesome dry cough. After a day occurs a red and often
confluent rash that usually is only seen in the face and then spreads
down the trunk and extremities. Other early symptoms of measles are
small white spots on the buccal mucosa (Koplik's spots).

Complications are quite common. Toddlers often suffer from respiratory
problems and the infected mucous membranes may become secondarily
infected with bacteria. Children can then have, for example, otitis
media, sinusitis or pneumonia, which often requires antibiotic
treatment. Measles virus is also capable of causing pneumonia in
itself.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Also see Measles update (11)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170309.4888914 report [4] on Romanian
outbreak, and Measles update (14)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170325.4924756, report [1]

A Healthmap showing location of Romania can be found at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/122>. - Mod.LK]

******
[2] Syria
Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: Syria:Direct [edited]
<syriadirect.org/news/hundreds-of-children-infected-as-measles-outbreak-ravages-east-damascus-suburbs-%E2%80%98not-enough%E2%80%99-vaccines/>


A "major outbreak" of measles is hitting the encircled,
rebel-controlled Damascus suburbs of East Ghouta, with doctors telling
Syria Direct that vaccine shortages are to blame for more than 350
cases of the easily preventable disease in less than 2 months.

With up to 80 percent of children unvaccinated inside the 450
000-person opposition pocket, measles is making an alarming resurgence
where such incidences were once "very rare" before the war, Amani, a
pediatrician at the Kafr Batna hospital who asked to be referred to
only by her 1st name, told Syria Direct. Doctors began seeing patients
with the disease as recently as late December [2016], she said. "By
the beginning of February [2017], it became an outbreak," Amani said.
Doctors across East Ghouta now tally more than 350 confirmed diagnoses
of the disease, with new cases emerging on a daily basis.

Measles is a viral disease that disproportionately affects young
children, often with a fever, rash and potentially lethal
complications that can be prevented by immunization. Vaccines,
however, have either been slow or entirely unable to reach East Ghouta
amidst the Assad regime's ongoing blockade and bombardment of the
rebel-held territory, 2 km [approx 1.24 mi] east of Damascus. The
encirclement, coupled with densely crowded living conditions due to
mass internal displacement, are turning the 100 sq. km [approx. 38.6
sq mi] suburbs into a breeding ground for the highly contagious
infection.

As a result, hundreds of East Ghouta children now suffer from
dangerously high fevers, severe respiratory issues and, in at least 2
instances, death.

Even when the Syrian Arab Red Crescent delivered scores of vaccines to
East Ghouta on [9 Mar 2017] -the first such shipment in months-
doctors said the amount was "hardly enough" to treat the area's
unvaccinated population.

Dr. Amani describes the local hospital as "packed with children"
waiting to receive 1 of the limited vaccines, which are often given on
a 1st-come, 1st-serve basis. "Inevitably, not all of the children will
get the vaccine...what we have just isn't enough," she said.

At least 2 people have died of measles-related complications since the
start of the outbreak, including a 23-year-old woman in Kafr Batna and
an 8-year-old girl in the town of Hamouriyah, 2km [approx 1.24 mi]
northeast, earlier this month [March 2017].

Children who are already symptomatic cannot be given a vaccine, and
antiviral treatment does not currently exist for the disease. This
means that doctors can only resort to palliative measures such as
painkillers, antipyretics and IV fluids to ensure that the condition
of patients, such 2-year-old MN, does not worsen. MN spent more than
15 days in the Kafr Batna hospital with upper respiratory problems, a
rash characteristic of measles, and severe conjunctivitis. His
condition deteriorated to such an extent that he was unable to open
his eyes for 2 days, his mother, UM, told Syria Direct. "I was
incredibly worried for my child's life," she said. "Even though he's
doing relatively better now, I don't deny that I'm still afraid, both
for his health and afraid that he may infect another child," said UM.
Families with multiple, unvaccinated children living in 1 room such as
UM's often see more than 1 child contract the virus.

In patients with access to quality health care, measles can be
managed. But for populations with malnutrition and inadequate health
care, "mortality can be as high as 10 percent," the France-based Union
of Medical Care and Relief Organizations (UOSSM) reported earlier this
month [March 2017]. Children affected by measles within East Ghouta
face an added risk of serious health complications given the dire food
and medical shortages resulting from the opposition-held area's 5-year
encirclement.

Fears of measles-related complications stemming from severe
malnutrition drastically increased last month [February 2017] after
regime forces launched a campaign to cut East Ghouta's vital food and
medical supply routes via underground tunnels, Syria Direct reported.
The ongoing campaign is largely stalemated with little ground changing
hands but has claimed dozens of lives.

While disproportionately affecting the young, "it's important to note
that measles does not just affect children," said Dr. Ahmed al-Baqai,
the director of the Save a Soul center, East Ghouta's only medical
center specialized in infectious diseases and epidemics, which is in
Kafr Batna. "There are confirmed cases even with people over the age
of 40," he added.

The United Nations has been unable to transport vaccines to encircled
towns within East Ghouta for several months because of "fighting in
the area, on the road, in addition to road closures due to security
issues, lack of administrative permissions and facilitations and/or
agreement between parties to the conflict," Linda Tom, a spokeswoman
with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(UNOCHA), told Syria Direct from Damascus.

With doctors recording new cases of measles every day, "time is
running out for the people of East Ghouta," Elizabeth Hoff, the World
Health Organization (WHO) Representative in Syria, said in a press
statement on [Mon 27 Mar 2017]. "As health needs increase, available
resources are being depleted day by day."

Measles is one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths,
with more than 134 200 deaths attributed worldwide to the disease in
2015, the World Health Organization reported in November [2016]. That
figure is down from an estimated 2.6 million annual measles-related
deaths prior to widespread vaccination campaigns beginning in 1980.

[Byline: Alaa Nassar, Mohammed al-Falouji, Adam a-Shami and Justin
Schuster]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[A Healthmap showing location of Syria can be found at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/86>. - Mod.LK]

******
[3] Ireland (Cork)
Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017, 10:27 AM
Source: Irish Mirror [edited]
<http://www.irishmirror.ie/news/irish-news/world-health-organisation-issue-measles-10112678>


The World Health Organisation is working towards a measles free Europe
in 2 years. The World Health Organisation has issued a measles warning
for Europe as outbreaks of the illness rise. In January of this year
[2017], over 500 cases of measles were reported in the European
region.

There is the potential to cause large outbreaks wherever immunization
coverage has dropped below the necessary threshold of 95 percent.

In Ireland in the period from February 2016 to January 2017, 45 cases
of the measles were recorded. This gives Ireland an incidence rate of
9.5 people in every million getting the illness. This happens to be
the 5th highest incidence rate in Europe behind Belgium, Tajikistan,
Italy and Romania where it is particularly endemic.

Measles is a highly contagious virus that can cause potentially
serious illness.

As measles remains endemic in most parts of the world, it can spread
to any country, including those that have eliminated the disease. Dr
Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe said: "With steady
progress towards elimination over the past 2 years, it is of
particular concern that measles cases are climbing in Europe. Today's
travel patterns put no person or country beyond the reach of the
measles virus. Outbreaks will continue in Europe, as elsewhere, until
every country reaches the level of immunization needed to fully
protect their populations."

The largest current measles outbreaks in Europe are taking place in
Romania and Italy. Italy has seen a sharp rise in cases in the first
weeks of 2017. So far 238 cases have been reported for January 2017
and preliminary information indicating at least as many cases for
February [2017], the total number of cases reported for 2016,
approximately 850, may soon be surpassed.

Romania is the worst hit country and has reported over 3400 cases and
17 deaths since January 2016. [See [1] above. - Mod.LK]. The majority
of cases are concentrated in areas where immunization coverage is
especially low.

Dr Jakab added: "I urge all endemic countries to take urgent measures
to stop transmission of measles within their borders, and all
countries that have already achieved this to keep up their guard and
sustain high immunization coverage. Together we must make sure that
the hard-earned progress made towards regional elimination is not
lost."

[Byline: Cormac O'Shea]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[A Healthmap showing location of Ireland can be found at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/39>. - Mod.LK]

******
[4] Europe
Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: WHO, press release [edited]
<http://www.euro.who.int/en/media-centre/sections/press-releases/2017/measles-outbreaks-across-europe-threaten-progress-towards-elimination>


Measles outbreaks across Europe threaten progress towards elimination
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Over 500 measles cases were reported for January 2017 in the WHO
European Region. Measles continues to spread within and among European
countries, with the potential to cause large outbreaks wherever
immunization coverage has dropped below the necessary threshold of 95
percent.

"With steady progress towards elimination over the past 2 years, it is
of particular concern that measles cases are climbing in Europe," says
Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe. "Today's travel
patterns put no person or country beyond the reach of the measles
virus. Outbreaks will continue in Europe, as elsewhere, until every
country reaches the level of immunization needed to fully protect
their populations."

Two-thirds of the Region's 53 countries have interrupted endemic
transmission of measles; however, 14 remain endemic, according to the
Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination
(RVC).

Unchecked transmission threatens progress
-----------------------------------------
As many as 559 measles cases were reported in the Region for January
2017. Of these, 474 cases were reported in 7 of the 14 endemic
countries (France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Switzerland and
Ukraine). Preliminary information for February [2017] indicates that
the number of new infections is sharply rising. In all of these
countries, estimated national immunization coverage with the 2nd dose
of measles-containing vaccine is less than the 95 percent threshold.

"I urge all endemic countries to take urgent measures to stop
transmission of measles within their borders, and all countries that
have already achieved this to keep up their guard and sustain high
immunization coverage. Together we must make sure that the hard-earned
progress made towards regional elimination is not lost," continues Dr
Jakab.

Current major outbreaks
-----------------------
The largest current measles outbreaks in Europe are taking place in
Romania and Italy.

Romania has reported over 3400 cases and 17 deaths since January 2016
(as of 10 Mar 2017). The majority of cases are concentrated in areas
where immunization coverage is especially low. According to reported
data, the 3 measles genotypes circulating in Romania since January
2016 were not spreading in the country before, but were reported in
several other European countries and elsewhere in 2015. Comprehensive
laboratory and epidemiological data are needed before the origin of
infection and routes of transmission can be concluded.

Italy has seen a sharp rise in cases in the first weeks of 2017. With
238 cases reported so far for January 2017 and preliminary information
indicating at least as many cases for February [2017], the total
number of cases reported for 2016 (approximately 850) may soon be
surpassed.

Countries at highest risk
-------------------------
Measles is a highly contagious virus that can cause potentially
serious illness. As measles remains endemic in most parts of the
world, it can spread to any country, including those that have
eliminated the disease. Every un- or under-immunized person regardless
of age is therefore at risk of contracting the disease; this is
especially true in those countries where persistently low immunization
rates increase the risk of a large outbreak with possible tragic
consequences. National authorities should maximize their efforts to
achieve and/or sustain at least 95 percent coverage with 2 doses of
measles-containing vaccine to prevent circulation in the event of an
importation.

The WHO Regional Office for Europe is working closely with the
national health authorities of countries at risk and in the midst of
large measles outbreaks to plan and implement appropriate response
measures. These include enhancing surveillance and identifying and
immunizing those at heightened risk of infection, especially
susceptible persons who may be or come in contact with infected
persons, as well as engaging communities to encourage vaccination for
all those who need it.

Measles and rubella elimination in Europe
-----------------------------------------
In adopting the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020, all 53 Member
States of the Region committed to eliminating measles and rubella as
one of the Region's priority immunization goals.

Progress towards this goal was confirmed at the 5th meeting of the RVC
in 2016, which concluded that:
- 37 of the 53 countries had interrupted endemic measles
transmission;
- of these, 24 countries maintained interruption for more than 36
months and were therefore considered to have eliminated the disease;
- 14 countries remain endemic for measles transmission; and
- 2 countries have not submitted annual status updates.
WHO technical experts cooperate closely with European countries to
achieve this goal, providing comprehensive support to strengthen
immunization programmes, increase population immunity and confidence
in vaccines, build disease surveillance capacities, and respond to
outbreaks in line with countries' commitment to elimination.

--
Communicated by
Kathryn Soderholm
<kathryn.soderholm@gmail.com>

******
[5] USA (Nebraska)
Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source:: Lincoln Journal Star [edited]
<http://journalstar.com/news/local/eagle-third-graders-exposed-to-measles/article_a17886e2-0734-5191-b3be-5ddd7d72e978.html>


Third-grade students and staff from Eagle Elementary School may have
been exposed to measles at the Strategic Air Command and Aerospace
Museum in Ashland on [Mon 13 Mar 2017].

An infected person from Omaha spent time at the museum on [Mon 13 Mar
2017] between 8 AM and 2 PM. Eagle 3rd-grade students visited the
museum that same day.

According to a public health alert letter sent to staff and parents
from the school's superintendent on [Mon 27 Mar 2017], measles is a
"highly contagious viral disease" that "can remain in the area for 2
hours after the infected person has left."

The school has confirmed that all of the 3rd-grade students have their
immunizations up to date, and no students or staff members have
reported any symptoms. Unless more cases are identified, the school
said the risk for developing measles from this exposure will end 3
Apr. [See URL above for exposure locations. - Mod.LK]

Those most at-risk include people who have had no measles, mumps and
rubella vaccine, only 1 dose of the vaccine and those who have not had
the measles. Symptoms include fever, runny nose, coughing, red eyes,
sore throat and a rash, and usually begin 7 to 14 days after
exposure.

[Byline: Bailey Schulz]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[A Healthmap showing location of Nebraska in the United States can be
found at United States <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/106>. - Mod.LK]

******
[6] Somalia
Date: Mon 27 Mar 2017
Source: Radio Ergo [edited]
<https://radioergo.org/en/blog.php?article_id=2806>


A measles outbreak is spreading mainly among children in
drought-affected rural areas of Buhodle in northern Somalia's Togdheer
region, according to local medical workers.

Dr Farah Hassan Aden, who works at Widhwidh health centre, 65 km
[approx. 40 mi] from Buhodle, told Radio Ergo the centre had admitted
18 measles patients from Ged-dher, Belli-hara, Banyal and other rural
villages where migrating pastoralist families have gathered seeking
food and water. The doctor reported 40 known cases, including 32
children, of measles over the last 10 days.

In Ged-dher village, which has no health centre, the doctor said the
local people confirmed that there are 26 people sick with measles.
NAM, 41, who lives in Ged-dher, told Radio Ergo by phone that 5 of her
7 children are sick with measles. She said she was looking after them
at home because she does not have the 100 000 Somali shilling (USD
4.5) per person to travel by vehicle to the health centre in Widhwidh,
20 km [approx. 12.4 mi] away.

"All of the 5 children are bedridden and cannot get up without help,"
she said. "If I knew the problems the disease causes I would have
sought to vaccinate my children a long time ago." NAM said she is
borrowing money from a local shop to buy painkillers for her sick
children.

Like many pastoralist families they have not had time to think about
vaccination and other health issues being busy with their livestock.
NAM's family has 30 goats left which she cannot sell as they are weak
and thin. Four months ago, she fled from Banyal village, one of the
worst hit areas by the drought, hoping to find pasture in this part of
the region. The family lost 120 goats so far in the drought.

Dr Farah said he sometimes receives patients in critical condition, as
they have not received any treatment. The health centre in Widhwidh is
supported by Somali Aid Society (SAS), a local organisation that
provides free services, including nutritional treatment.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>


[Alert: Pre-famine in Somalia from 23 Feb 2017. Somalia is on the
brink of famine. An immediate scale-up of the drought response is
required to prevent the worst-case scenario. A pre-famine alert was
issued for Somalia on 2 Feb 2017 by the UN Humanitarian Coordinator.
Over the past 6 months, the food security and nutrition situation has
deteriorated significantly and a 3rd famine in 25 years is a real
possibility. More than 360 000 acutely malnourished and 70 000
severely malnourished children currently need urgent and life-saving
support. - (<http://www.who.int/hac/crises/som/sitreps/en/>)

Added to this is the burden of disease the Somalians bear. Measles is
just one of the health problems the children face, but one that could
be prevented with vaccination. - Mod LK]

A Healthmap showing the location of Somalia can be found at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/125>]

[See Also:
Measles update (14) http://promedmail.org/post/20170325.4924756
Measles update (13) http://promedmail.org/post/20170319.4910476
Measles update (12) http://promedmail.org/post/20170314.4900920
Measles update (11) http://promedmail.org/post/20170309.4888914
Measles update (10) http://promedmail.org/post/20170303.4874401
Measles update (09) http://promedmail.org/post/20170221.4855486
Measles update (08) http://promedmail.org/post/20170215.4842312
Measles update (07) http://promedmail.org/post/20170209.4827912
Measles update (06) http://promedmail.org/post/20170201.4808554
Measles update (05): India (BN) New Zealand ex Singapore, USA (NJ)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170129.4801137
Measles update (05): India (BN) New Zealand ex Singapore, USA (NJ)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170129.4801137
Measles update (04): Australia (VI, NS), USA (CA), Netherlands
http://promedmail.org/post/20170123.4784372
Measles update (03): Pakistan (BA), Australia (NS), Switzerland
http://promedmail.org/post/20170112.4761857
Measles update (02): Australia (NS), Romania (TM), USA (CA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170106.4747028
Measles update (01): USA (CA), Sudan (SK)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170103.4740174
2016
-----
Measles update (61): Australia (WA), USA (CA), Pakistan (BA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161225.4723182
Measles update (60): Australia (Sydney), comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20161216.4704535
Measles update (59): Somalia (JH)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161215.4699576
Measles update (58): South Sudan, immunization
http://promedmail.org/post/20161126.4655763
Measles update (57): Americas, Australia ex Indonesia, Pakistan, Qatar
http://promedmail.org/post/20161123.4648488
Measles update (56): need to immunise, Canada (BC)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161112.4623563
Measles update (55): Japan, Australia (WA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161103.4604873
Measles update (54): Australia ex Japan, Liberia, Romania, USA SSPE
http://promedmail.org/post/20161029.4594189
Measles update (53): Somalia, Australia, USA
http://promedmail.org/post/20161022.4578186
Measles update (52): Europe, Asia, Americas
http://promedmail.org/post/20161013.4556383
Measles update (51): UK (PM) alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20161010.4549093
Measles update (50): Americas, measles-free
http://promedmail.org/post/20160928.4520243
Measles update (49): UK (S. Wales) summer festivals, Romania
http://promedmail.org/post/20160925.4513493
Measles update (48): Asia-Pacific
http://promedmail.org/post/20160921.4506455
Measles update (47): Asia-Pacific, Americas
http://promedmail.org/post/20160915.4489103
Measles update (46): Japan (OS) Kansai airport
http://promedmail.org/post/20160909.4478118
Measles update (45): Japan, Pakistan (NW)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160908.4473122
Measles update (44): Canada (ON), Japan (OS) airport alert
0160906.4467460
Measles update (43): Asia-Pacific, Europe
http://promedmail.org/post/20160902.4459550
Measles update (42): Myanmar (SA), Japan ex overseas, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20160825.4442331
Measles update (41): New Zealand (AU) ex overseas, Myanmar (SA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160820.4429246
Measles update (40): UK (Wales) Asia-Pacific
http://promedmail.org/post/20160814.4416336
Measles update (39): Asia-Pacific, Africa
http://promedmail.org/post/20160812.4412513
Measles update (38): Asia-Pacific, Africa
http://promedmail.org/post/20160810.4405798
Measles update (37): UK festival, Nigeria, Sudan (ND)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160808.4400659
Measles update (36): UK (Wales), USA (NC) ex Europe, Taiwan airport
http://promedmail.org/post/20160804.4394421
Measles update (35): Ireland (GY), Botswana vaccine shortage
http://promedmail.org/post/20160730.4382060
Measles update (34): Brazil measles-free, South Sudan
http://promedmail.org/post/20160728.4377021
Measles update (33): UK (Wales) music festival
http://promedmail.org/post/20160725.4368584
Measles update (32): USA (CO), Cambodia, Nigeria (BO)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160720.4357193
Measles update (31): USA vaccination & testing, UK outbreak & warning
http://promedmail.org/post/20160719.4353800
Measles update (29): USA (AZ), Australia (VI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160702.4322900
Measles update (28): Cambodia, UK (England), Malaysia, USA (AZ)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160629.4317125
Measles update (27): Cambodia, UK (England), Malaysia, USA (AZ)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160629.4317125
Measles update (26): Ireland, New Zealand, USA (AZ,FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160624.4308033
Measles update (25): New Zealand, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20160620.4297854
Measles update (24): USA (AZ) outbreak, school vaccine coverage
http://promedmail.org/post/20160618.4295396
Measles update (23): Cambodia, Sudan, USA (FL,AZ)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160609.4273557
Measles update (22): New Zealand, Sudan, Ireland
http://promedmail.org/post/20160602.4262305
Measles update (21): Ireland, New Zealand, USA
http://promedmail.org/post/20160529.4253045
Measles update (20): Pakistan, New Zealand, Singapore, Kenya
http://promedmail.org/post/20160526.4247311]
.................................................sb/lk/ao/jh
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using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
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Posted on 3/29/2017 02:37:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Australia: (AC) wild, RHDV1 K5, new strain, OIE

RABBIT HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE - AUSTRALIA: (AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY)
WILD, RHDV1 K5, NEW STRAIN, OIE
******************************************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2017; 30(13) [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=23377>


Rabbit hemorrhagic disease, Australia
-------------------------------------
Information received on 28 Mar 2017 from Dr Mark Schipp, chief
veterinary officer, Department of Agriculture and Water Resources,
Australian Government, Canberra, Australia

Summary:
Report type: immediate notification (final report)
Date of start of the event: 14 Mar 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 14 Mar 2017
Report date: 27 Mar 2017
Reason for notification: new strain of a listed disease in the
country
Causal agent: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 1, strain K5 [RHDV1
K5]
Nature of diagnosis: laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to the whole country.

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
Date of start of the outbreak: 14 Mar 2017
Outbreak status: resolved 27 Mar 2017
Epidemiological unit: natural park
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
European rabbit: _Oryctolagus cuniculus_ (Leporide) / - / 1 / 1 / 0 /
0
Affected population: single dead rabbit found near RHDV1 K5 release
site on the outskirts of Canberra.

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: Released as
biological control agent
Epidemiological comment: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus 1, strain
K5 was released in all jurisdictions throughout Australia, as a
biological control agent, in the first week of March 2017. This case
is the 1st reported case following the release of this strain of
RHDV1, which is now considered endemic throughout the country.

Control measures
Measures applied: vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exist); no
treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
CSIRO, Black Mountain, Canberra (National laboratory) / European
rabbit / polymerase chain reaction (PCR) / 14 Mar 2017 / Positive

Future reporting
The event is resolved. No more reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[In the 1980s, the European rabbit (_Oryctolagus cuniculus_)
populations were devastated by a virus that caused an extremely lethal
and highly contagious disease, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). The
1st outbreak of this new disease was reported in 1984 in the Jiangsu
Province of China within a group of commercially-bred Angora rabbits
imported from Germany. As the virus spread worldwide, naturally
occurring RHD outbreaks were reported in geographically distant
regions, such as Cuba, Uruguay and Reunion Island.

RHDV is a highly virulent lagovirus endemic in Europe and Australasian
populations of the European rabbit, _Oryctolagus cuniculus_. RHD is
characterized by high morbidity and high mortality (70-90 percent),
and spreads very rapidly by direct and indirect transmission.
Infection can occur by nasal, conjunctival or oral routes.

For these characteristics of RHDV, it was deliberately released in
Australia and New Zealand. There, RHD has reduced rabbit abundance,
particularly in dry regions, but rabbits in cooler, high-rainfall
areas have been able to maintain their populations. In Australia and
New Zealand, RHD has raised the prospects for managing rabbits in low
rainfall areas and brought substantial economic and environmental
benefits. It is expected that after many generations the defense
strategies of rabbits evolve to resist and/or tolerate RHDV, so
introduction of a novel strain might enable boosting the efficiency of
RHD as a biological control. - Mod.PMB

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/290>.]

[See Also:
2016
----
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Australia (03): RHDV1 K5, rabbit control
http://promedmail.org/post/20161031.4596980
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Australia (02): (SA,VI) wild, RHDV2
strain, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20160701.4319975
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Switzerland: (ZH,VS) domestic, new
strain, OIE
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Finland: wild rabbits, 1st report, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160517.4228040
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - UK: (Scotland) wild rabbits
http://promedmail.org/post/20160224.4046329
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Australia: (VI) RHDV2 strain
http://promedmail.org/post/20160219.4033343
2015
----
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Sweden: (VG) domestic, new strain, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150922.3661562
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - UK (02): (England)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150821.3593921
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - UK: (England) susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20150820.3591864
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Australia (02): (AC) new strain, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20150726.3532636
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Australia: (AC) wild, new strain, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150708.3494836
2014
----
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Denmark: (SD) OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20141206.3016136
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Norway: (OP) hare, rabbit, 1st rep, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140606.2522565
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease - Australia: (NS) domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140204.2252000]
.................................................crd/pmb/ao/jh
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thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
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or archived material.
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Posted on 3/29/2017 02:17:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Glanders, equine - India (02): (RJ)

GLANDERS, EQUINE - INDIA (02): (RAJASTAN)
*****************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017, 1.09 PM IST
Source: The Times of India (TOI), Times News Network (TNN) [edited]
<http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/euthanasia-for-three-horses-suffering-from-deadly-disease-edt/articleshow/57863181.cms>


The State government will euthanise 3 horses after they were found to
be infected with the deadly disease glanders. The Animal husbandry
department based on the sample reports on [Mon 27 Mar 2017] issued the
orders.

A total of 240 serum samples of horses and animals from the family of
equines were collected from across the state and sent to National
Research Centre on Equines in Hisar. Out [of] them, 5 were found to be
positive. By the time the government received the report, 2 horses
were already dead.

All the diseased horses were found in Rajsamand and Udaipur districts.
"Out of all the samples, 5 were found to be infected with glanders. A
total of 2 died of natural death and now we will have to put down the
remaining 3 to put a check on the spread of this epidemic," said
animal husbandry minister Prabhulal Saini.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[India and Brazil are known to lead the list of countries where
glanders is endemic. Media reports on cases of the traditionally
fearsome disease, glanders, are often published by the Indian press
(another recent report is available at
<http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/vadodara/glanders-causes-panic-in-two-districts-of-gujarat/articleshow/57761166.cms>).
This is not fully reflected in India's official reports to the OIE.
According to India's recent reports to the OIE, the annual numbers of
recorded glanders outbreaks (in equidae) countrywide were as follows:
2010 - 1; 2011 - 3; 2012 - 1; 2013 - 1; 2014 - 0; 2015 - 5; (annual
2016 report for animals not yet available). No statistics on the
incidence of glanders in humans in India could be obtained.

Glanders is a contagious and fatal disease of horses, donkeys, and
mules, caused by infection with the bacterium _Burkholderia mallei_.
The pathogen causes nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory
tract and lungs. A skin form also occurs, known as 'farcy'. Control of
glanders requires testing of suspect clinical cases, screening of
apparently normal equids, and elimination of reactors. _B. mallei_ can
be transmitted to humans, but such cases, which were known to be often
fatal, have become rather uncommon (see ref 1). In view of its
zoonotic potential, all infected or contaminated (or potentially
infected or contaminated) material must be handled in a laboratory
with appropriate biosafety and biosecurity controls following a
biorisk analysis.

The above and additional information on the disease, its causative
agent and its diagnosis is available at
<http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.05.11_GLANDERS.pdf>.

No vaccine against this disease is available.

The following list of countries from which glanders has been reported
since 2010 is derived from ref 2, where subscribers can find
additional updated information on the disease: Brazil, India, Iran,
Kuwait, Mongolia, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Eritrea, Pakistan,
Lebanon, Russia and Iraq. In 2014, a single case was notified from
Germany, source of infection unknown.

References
1. Van Zandt KE, Greer MT and Gelhaus HC. Glanders: an overview of
infection in humans. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013;8:131. doi:
10.1186/1750-1172-8-131. Available at:
<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766238/>.
2. Elschner MC, Neubauer H and Sprague LD. The Resurrection of
Glanders in a new Epidemiological Scenario: A Beneficiary of "Global
Change". Current Clinical Microbiology Reports. March 2017, 4(1):
54-60. Abstract available at:
<https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40588-017-0058-6>.
- Mod.AS

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/11124>.]

[See Also:
Glanders, equine - India: (MP)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170312.4894996
2016
----
Glanders, equine - India (03): (HR) RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20160812.4412512
Glanders, equine - India (02): (HR)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160810.4405589
Glanders, equine - India: (GJ) RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20160708.4333940
2015
----
Glanders, equine - India: (JK) equidae, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20151215.3865159]
.................................................sb/arn/ao/jh
*##########################################################*
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information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
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or archived material.
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Posted on 3/29/2017 02:05:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> E. coli EHEC - Canada (04): O121, flour

E. COLI EHEC - CANADA (04): O121, FLOUR
***************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

[1]
Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: EpiCore Global Surveillance Project [edited]


In regards to the outbreak of _E. coli_ O121 linked to Robin Hood all
purpose flour, sold at 10 kg [approx. 22 lbs] bags with the code BB/MA
2018 AL 17 and 6 291 548; the recalled flour was distributed to 4
provinces in Canada. However, additional product may be linked to the
outbreak. The investigation is ongoing.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[2]
Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: EpiCore Global Surveillance Project [edited]


The Canadian Food Inspection Agency says 10 kg [approx. 22 lbs] bags
of Robin Hood brand All Purpose Flour have been recalled. The popular
brand of all-purpose flour sold in Western Canada is being recalled
due to possible _E. coli_ contamination. The Canadian Food Inspection
Agency says there has been 1 reported illness associated with the
consumption of Robin Hood brand all-purpose flour [it is unclear why
the report says 1 case only as 25 cases have been reported - Mod.LL].
The flour, which may be contaminated with _E. coli_ O121 was sold in
B.C., Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.

--
Communicated by:
EpiCore Surveillance Project member
Chinyere Nwafor-Okoli

******
[3]
Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: Public Health Agency of Canada [edited]
<http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/phn-asp/2017/outbreak-ecoli-eng.php>


Public Health Notice - Outbreak of _E. coli_ infections linked to
Robin Hood All Purpose Flour, original
-------------------------------------------------------------------
The Public Health Agency of Canada is collaborating with federal and
provincial public health partners to investigate an outbreak of
_Escherichia coli_, called _E.coli_ O121 that has now been linked to
Robin Hood All Purpose Flour, Original. The Canadian Food Inspection
Agency (CFIA) has issued a food recall warning advising Canadians of
the recalled product that has been distributed in British Columbia,
Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

Canadians are advised not to use or eat any Robin Hood All Purpose
Flour, Original sold in 10 kg [approx. 22 lbs] bags with a code
containing BB/MA 2018 AL 17 and 6 291 548 as these products may be
contaminated with _E. coli_. For additional recall details, please
consult CFIA's recall notice. Restaurants and retailers are also
advised not to sell or serve the recalled product, or any items that
may have been prepared or produced using the recalled product. This
outbreak is a reminder that it is not safe to taste or eat raw dough
or batter, regardless of the type of flour used as raw flour can be
contaminated with harmful bacteria such as _E. coli_.

_E. coli_ are bacteria that live naturally in the intestines of
cattle, poultry, other animals, and humans. Most _E. coli_ are
harmless to humans. However, there are many different strains of _E.
coli_, and some varieties can cause serious illness. While most people
made ill by _E. coli_ experience a few days of upset stomach and then
recover fully, infections can sometimes be life threatening.

Investigation Summary
---------------------
There have been 25 cases of _E. coli_ O121 with a matching genetic
fingerprint reported in 4 provinces: British Columbia (12),
Saskatchewan (4), Alberta (4) and Newfoundland and Labrador (5). The
illness onset dates range from November 2016 to late February 2017. A
total of 6 individuals have been hospitalized. These individuals have
recovered or are recovering. No deaths have been reported. The
majority (54 percent) of the individuals who became ill are male with
an average age of 24 years.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has issued a food recall warning
for Robin Hood All Purpose Flour, Original linked to this outbreak.
During the food safety investigation, samples of Robin Hood flour were
collected and did test positive for _E. coli_ O121. Several
individuals who became ill reported having contact with Robin Hood
flour. The investigation is ongoing and it is possible that additional
products linked to the outbreak investigation may be identified.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Once again, thank you to EpiCore Surveillance for their continued
contribution. It should be noted that in 2016, there was a seemingly
separate outbreak of EHEC O121 associated with flour from a different
brand (General Mills). It would be quite instructive to know if the
isolates from these 2 North American outbreaks can be compared. -
Mod.LL

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/12>.]

[See Also:
E. coli EHEC - Canada (03): O121
http://promedmail.org/post/20170323.4920524
E. coli EHEC - Canada (02): O121, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20170321.4915570
E. coli EHEC - Canada: O121
http://promedmail.org/post/20170116.4769466
2016
----
E. coli EHEC - USA (25): O121, O26, flour, alert, expanded recall
http://promedmail.org/post/20160726.4371012
E. coli EHEC - Canada: (AB) O157
http://promedmail.org/post/20160204.3991821
E. coli EHEC - USA (16): O121, flour, alert, recall
http://promedmail.org/post/20160602.4261085
E. coli EHEC - USA (14): O121, flour, alert, recall
http://promedmail.org/post/20160601.4258222
2015
----
E. coli EHEC - Canada (04): O157
http://promedmail.org/post/20150916.3647354
E. coli EHEC - Canada (03): O157
http://promedmail.org/post/20150826.3602244
E. coli EHEC - Canada (02): (ON) O157, leafy greens susp, correction
http://promedmail.org/post/20150421.3313162
E. coli EHEC - Canada (02): (ON) O157, leafy greens susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20150421.3312096
E. coli EHEC - Canada: O157
http://promedmail.org/post/20150416.3301567
2014
----
E. coli EHEC - Canada (07): (NU) RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20141217.3039697
E. coli EHEC - Canada (06): (ON) O157, unpasteurized cider, alert,
recall http://promedmail.org/post/20141101.2920416
E. coli EHEC - Canada (05): (AB) O157, chicken sausage products,
recall http://promedmail.org/post/20141005.2833262
E. coli EHEC - Canada (04): (AB) O157, pork products, recall
http://promedmail.org/post/20140909.2759887
E. coli EHEC - Canada (03): (AB)
http://promedmail.org/post/20140820.2707399
E. coli EHEC - Canada (02): (AB) sprouts, O157
http://promedmail.org/post/20140803.2655749
E. coli EHEC - Canada: (QC) beef tartare, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20140116.2175436
2013
----
E. coli EHEC - USA (33): O121 frozen snacks, flour source
http://promedmail.org/post/20131117.2060029
2011
----
E. coli O157, 2009 - USA: cookie dough, raw flour source
http://promedmail.org/post/20111217.3619]
.................................................ll/ao/jh
*##########################################################*
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ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
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information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Posted on 3/29/2017 01:55:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/EDR> Meningitis, meningococcal - Cameroon: (Yaounde) fatal, sg W

MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL - CAMEROON: (YAOUNDE) FATAL, SEROGROUP W
******************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Mon 27 Mar 2017
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/cameroon-meningitis-outbreak-reported-yaounde-central-prison-64353/>


A meningitis outbreak that began earlier this month [March 2017] at
the Yaounde Central Prison in Kondengui has grown to about [24] cases
in a matter of about 4 weeks.

As of 24 Mar 2017, a total of 23 suspected/confirmed cases including 9
deaths (case fatality rate of 39 percent) have been reported. While
majority of the affected people were prisoners, 5 suspected cases came
from the surrounding community in the affected district.

Outbreak investigation conducted by the Ministry of Health obtained 11
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, 5 of which tested positive for
_Neisseria meningitidis_ (Nm) serogroup Y/W135 by rapid diagnostic
test. Subsequent bacteriological culture isolated Nm W135 from 2
samples, thus confirming the outbreak.

WHO supported the Ministry of Health to secure 7079 doses of ACYW
tetravalent meningitis vaccine from the International Coordinating
Group (ICG), targeting 6436 persons. Preparation for reactive
meningitis vaccination campaign is being finalized.

Since the outbreak occurred in a closed setting, chemoprophylaxis was
administered to 4007 close contacts.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The northern portion of Cameroon is part of the African meningitis
belt, a region in the semi-arid area of sub-Saharan Africa that
extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, where the rate of
incidence of meningitis is very high. The northern provinces of
Cameroon are periodically affected by meningococcal meningitis
(<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310568/>). A map of
the African meningitis belt can be found at
<http://www.meningvax.org/epidemics-africa.php>. The attack rate of
meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt ranges from
100 to 800 per 100 000 population, but individual communities have
reported rates as high as 1/100.

In the early 1990s, meningococcus serogroup A was the most frequently
identified serogroup in Cameroon; during the 2007 and 2008 meningitis
seasons, an outbreak of meningococcus serogroup W135 was reported in
northern Cameroon
(<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2662656/>). In 2010, an
outbreak (70 cases/100 000 inhabitants) of meningococcal meningitis
due to serogroup A was reported in the northern region, a serogroup
that had not been identified in north Cameroon since 2006
(<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310568/#R5>).

Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, with a population of approximately
2.5 million, is in the Central Region of the nation, outside of the
usual African meningitis belt. From 1999 through 2001, a few cases of
meningitis were attributed to serogroup W135 in Yaounde
(<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2732466/>). - Mod.ML

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/34100>.]

[See Also:
Meningitis, meningococcal - Nigeria (02): fatal, emergence sg C, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20170325.4925882
Meningitis, meningococcal - Nigeria: (SO, ZA) fatal, new sg.susp., RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20170318.4909903
Meningitis, meningococcal - Togo: fatal, emergence of serogroup W
http://promedmail.org/post/20170225.4863648
Meningitis, meningococcal - UK: emergence of serogroup W, changed
vaccine policy http://promedmail.org/post/20170111.4756272]
.................................................sb/ml/mj/jh
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Posted on 3/29/2017 09:30:00 AM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Bluetongue - Botswana: (KG) not typed, ovine, OIE

BLUETONGUE - BOTSWANA: (KGATLENG) NOT TYPED, OVINE, OIE
*******************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Tue 28 Mar 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2017; 30(13) [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=23324>


Bluetongue, Botswana
--------------------
Information received on [and dated] 28 Mar 2017 from Dr Letlhogile
Modisa, Director, Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture,
Gaborone, Botswana

Summary
Report type: immediate notification (final report)
Date of start of the event: 25 Jan 2017
Date of pre-confirmation of the event: 17 Mar 2017
Report date: 28 Mar 2017
Date submitted to OIE: 28 Mar 2017
Date event resolved: 21 Mar 2017
Reason for notification: reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 4 Aug 2016
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: Bluetongue virus
Serotype: not typed
Nature of diagnosis: laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks
Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak location: Malotwana, Kgatleng
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Sheep / 39 / 1 / 0 / 0 / 0
Affected population: sheep grazing in a communal area.

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate /
Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Sheep / 2.56 / 0 / 0 / 0
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction,
and/or slaughter

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: vectors
Epidemiological comments: one sheep grazing in the communal area
reported with lesions around the mouth, gums and slightly swollen
tongue. Lesions were consistent with bluetongue and confirmed by
laboratory test from whole blood by real-time RT-PCR. Surveillance has
not detected any other cases in the same kraal and within a 10 km [6.2
mi] radius over the past 8 weeks.

Control measures
Measures applied: traceability, vaccination permitted (if a vaccine
exists), no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type: ARC Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OIE
reference laboratory)
Tests and results:
Species / Test / Test date / Result
Sheep / reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) / 17
Mar 2017 / Positive

Future reporting
The event is resolved. No more reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[In May 2016, one outbreak of bluetongue (BT) was reported in
Matasalalo, Southern province. As noted in the final report:
"Investigations so far have not revealed any cases on the ground. The
outbreak became self-limiting to the original foci. Laboratory results
have identified 13 serotypes including 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14,
15, 16, 19, and 21. This event is now closed and no further reports
will be provided." See event summary and map at
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review/viewsummary?reportid=20145>

Maps of Botswana can be seen at
<http://www.ezilon.com/maps/images/africa/political-map-of-Botswana.gif>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/15793>. - Mod.CRD]

[See Also:
2016
----
Bluetongue - Botswana: (SO) st pending, ovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160506.4206640
2014
----
Bluetongue - Botswana: (KW) st not typed, ovine, resolved, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140828.2728819]
.................................................crd/mj/jh
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information, and of any statements or opinions based
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using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Posted on 3/29/2017 09:18:00 AM | Categories: