Thursday, December 14, 2017

PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique: (TE) bovine, serotype not typed, OIE

FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - MOZAMBIQUE: (TETE) BOVINE, SEROTYPE NOT TYPED,
OIE
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<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Wed 13 Dec 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2017; 30(50) [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=25309>


Foot and mouth disease, Mozambique
----------------------------------
Information received on [and dated] 13 Dec 2017 from Dr Americo Da
Conceicao, national director, Veterinary Services, Ministry of
Agriculture, Maputo, Mozambique.

Summary
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 23 Nov 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 23 Nov 2017
Reason for notification: first occurrence of a listed disease
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: foot and mouth disease virus
Serotype: not typed
Nature of diagnosis: suspicion, clinical
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks, total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Doa. Doa Sede, Doa, Tete
Date of start of the outbreak: 23 Nov 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: village
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Cattle / 640 / 81 / 0 / 0 / 0
Affected population: The outbreak occurred in an area where
vaccination is not being implemented. Animals of all ages were
affected and presence of vesicles, on the tongue and gums, and wounds,
in the interdigital spaces, were observed during examination.

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]:
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate /
Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle / 12.66 / 0 / 0 / 0
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction,
and/or slaughter

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or
inconclusive; contact with infected animal(s) at grazing/watering

Control measures
Measures applied: movement control inside the country; surveillance
within containment and/or protection zone; quarantine; vaccination
permitted (if a vaccine exists); no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: vaccination in response to the outbreak(s);
surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
Veterinary Research Institute - DCA (National laboratory) / Cattle /
antibody detection ELISA / - / Positive

Future reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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[From September 2016 to November 2017, 3 outbreaks of FMDV serotype
SAT 2 have been reported; these are located in the provinces of Gaza
(1 outbreak) and Maputo (2 outbreaks). See event summary and map at
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review/viewsummary?reportid=21276>

Map of Mozambique is available at
<http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/mozambique_map.htm>,
and a HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Tete Province, Mozambique, at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/33050>.
- Mod.CRD]

[See Also:
Foot & mouth disease - Zimbabwe (02): bovine, impact, Botswana donates
vaccine http://promedmail.org/post/20171010.5370888
Foot & mouth disease - Zimbabwe: (MV,MA) bovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170818.5256997
Foot & mouth disease - Namibia: (CA) bovine, not typed, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170718.5185468
2016
---
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique: (GA) bovine, st. no typed, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20161017.4566546
Anthrax, foot & mouth disease - Uganda: (NT) bovine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160728.4376301
Foot & mouth disease - Nigeria: (TA) bovine, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20160607.4268754
Foot & mouth disease - Angola: (CC) bovine, st. pending, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160510.4213730
2015
----
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique: (MP) bovine, st pending, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150606.3414504
Foot & mouth disease - Namibia (03): (OH,OT) livestock
http://promedmail.org/post/20150524.3383043
Foot & mouth disease - Namibia (02): (OW) bovine, st pending, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150514.3361318
Foot & mouth disease - Zimbabwe: (MN,MS) bovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150508.3348905
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana: (NC) bovine, st. pending, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150310.3219940
Foot & mouth disease - Namibia: (KE) bovine, st not typed, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150128.3125934
2014
----
Foot & mouth disease - Namibia (02): (ZA) bovine, st. not typed, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20141203.3009867
Foot & mouth disease - Namibia: (ZA) bovine, st pending, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140829.2731740
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique: (MP) bovine, serotype pending, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140812.2683378
Foot & mouth disease - Uganda: st O, bovine, increased incidence &
morbidity, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20140729.2640533
Foot & mouth disease - Tunisia (09): spread, st O, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20140723.2628691
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana: (North West) susp. bovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140627.2568443
Foot & mouth disease - Zimbabwe: (MV) bovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140520.2484074
Foot & mouth disease - Guinea: (MD) bovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20140308.2321340
2013
----
Foot & mouth disease - Namibia: (CA) bovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20130809.1872283
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana: control, international trade
http://promedmail.org/post/20130802.1859931
Foot & mouth disease - South Africa: (LP) bovine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20130719.1834896
2011
----
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique: (GA, MP), st SAT2
http://promedmail.org/post/20110104.0039
2010
----
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique: (GA) bovine, ovine, susp. OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20101001.3561
2008
----
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique ex Zimbabwe: RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20080427.1457
Foot & mouth disease, bovine - Mozambique (Gaza)
http://promedmail.org/post/20080406.1255
2004
----
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique: control
http://promedmail.org/post/20040613.1591
2002
----
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique (03): OIE confirmed
http://promedmail.org/post/20021113.5792]
.................................................crd/ao/dk
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Posted on 12/14/2017 12:17:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Invasive mosquito - Spain: (CN)

INVASIVE MOSQUITO - SPAIN: (CANARY ISLANDS)
*******************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
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Date: Thu 14 Dec 2017, 9:53 AM
Source: Express [edited]
<https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/892182/Dengue-Yellow-fever-outbreak-deadly-Aedes-mosquito-Canary-Islands-Fuerteventura>


The mosquito that spreads the potentially deadly dengue and yellow
fever viruses has been discovered in the Canary Islands at the start
of its high season.

Regional health officials sounded the alarm after discovering _Aedes_
type mosquitoes behind the spread of the painful diseases on the
holiday island of Fuerteventura. The insect - _Aedes aegypti_ - can
also spread other viruses common in tropical and sub-tropical areas
including Zika fever [virus], Mayaro and Chikungunya which has no cure
and like the other viruses associated with the mosquito cause fever
and severe joint pain.

A small pocket of the mosquitoes, which in 2005 were blamed for 30
cases of dengue fever on Madeira, was detected on a private estate
called Las Granadas near to Fuerteventura Hospital in the island
capital Puerto del Rosario. In 2010 they were also linked to an
outbreak of dengue in Cape Verde, another destination which has become
increasingly popular among British tourists in recent years.

Regional officials say "some specimens" have been found and they are
trying to locate possible breeding grounds and set traps in the area
to try to eradicate the problem and make sure they don't settle on the
island.

Health chiefs have sought to play down the fears of locals and
holidaymakers by insisting that the presence of the insects does not
mean visitors will go down with any of the viruses linked to them
because apart from sporadic imported cases, the diseases are not
present in the Canary Islands.

The Canary Islands regional health authority confirmed the discovery
of the _Aedes aegypti_ mosquito in a statement, saying: "An initial
intervention is taking place in Fuerteventura with a larger number of
traps being set and surveys taking place in houses near to the area
where the mosquito has been detected to determine the spread and the
area in which the work to eradicate them needs to be undertaken. Work
to locate and inspect possible breeding grounds is also being carried
out. All this will give us the vital information we need to proceed to
the quick and effective eradication of the mosquito.

"The mere presence of the mosquito doesn't mean that illnesses like
dengue, Zika, yellow fever and chikungunya are being spread as they
are not present in the Canary Islands except for sporadic cases."

A spokesman also insisted on the importance of public cooperation in
stamping out the problem, asking the public to send in pictures of the
"suspicious" mosquito if they saw them with information on the exact
location or bites they considered could have been caused by them.

Basilio Valladares, director of the Canary Islands' Institute of
Tropical Diseases and Public Health, told Spanish daily El Pais the
possibility of virus transmission was non-existent at the moment
because there was no one the authorities were aware of in
Fuerteventura that was ill. But he added: "If they settle the moment
might arrive when they could transmit viruses like dengue fever as it
happened in Cape Verde and Madeira."

The high temperatures in the Canaries over winter makes the
destination one of the most popular getaways at this time of the year
and early next year for Brits and other Northern Europeans. Thousands
also flock to the islands in February for their famous carnivals.

[Byline: Gerard Couzens]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The _Aedes aegypti_ mosquito has the remarkable ability to be
transported to new localities in tropical and subtropical areas of the
world. For example, in the past 3 years, this mosquitoe has been found
in the western USA (Southern California, Arizona and New Mexico) and
in Auckland, New Zealand. The risk of outbreak initiation in the
Canary Islands is not from tourists coming from the UK or Northern
Europe directly during their winter, rather from individuals viremic
with dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses coming from tropical and
subtropical localities where transmission of those viruses is going
on. The above report does not indicate if _Aedes aegypti_ is abundant
enough in any of the locations where they have been discovered in
Fuerteventura to permit ongoing virus transmission. Efforts to
determine the presence of this mosquito and reduce its numbers are
prudent. Eradication may prove difficult. - Mod.TY

A map showing the location of the Canary Island can be found at:
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canary_Islands>.
And a HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Canary Islands, Canary Islands, Spain:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/33405>.]

[See Also:
Invasive mosquito - USA (15): (CA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20171004.5360083
Invasive mosquito - USA (12): (NM)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170910.5307587
2016
----
Invasive mosquito - New Zealand: (AU)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160308.4078372
2015
----
Invasive mosquito - USA (07): (AZ) comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20150804.3557846]
.................................................sb/dk/ty/ao/dk
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ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
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information, and of any statements or opinions based
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using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Posted on 12/14/2017 10:21:00 AM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Pneumonia, ovine - USA: (AK,WY) wild ungulates, alert

PNEUMONIA OVINE - USA: (ALASKA,WYOMING) WILD UNGULATES, ALERT
*************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

In this posting:
[1] Alaska (Kenai Peninsula)
[2] Montana (Jackson Hole)

******
[1] Alaska (Kenai Peninsula)
Date: Mon 11 Dec 2017 10:49 AM AKST
Source: Peninsula Clarion [edited]
<http://peninsulaclarion.com/outdoors/2017-12-11/refuge-notebook-alaska-wild-sheep-and-goats-threatened-movi>


_Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae_ isn't a commonly used name in Alaska but
this little pathogen has been a topic of considerable discussion and
debate recently. First off, _M. ovipneumoniae_ isn't very fun to
spell, so let's just call it "Movi".

Second, you're probably wondering just what Movi is and why it's
important. It's a bacterium that commonly lives in the upper
respiratory tracts of domestic sheep and goats, often causing mild
respiratory disease. Infections in adults are typically not severe but
young individuals, those in poor physical condition, or those under
stress may develop acute or fatal pneumonia.

Although Movi infection doesn't always directly cause significant
respiratory disease in domestic animals, it may predispose individuals
to more serious illness. This is often caused by concurrent infections
of Movi and other equally difficult-to-spell bacterial flora, such as
_Mannheimia haemolytica_ and _Pasteurella multocida_, species that
naturally occur in the upper respiratory tracts of sheep and goats.

In healthy animals, these bacteria are typically held in check by the
body's normal immune defenses as antibodies destroy and slow the
replication of these bacteria. Movi infection, however, can suppress
normal defense mechanisms and increase demands on an animal's immune
system. Ultimately, this diminishes the animal's resistance to
_Mannheimia_ and _Pasteurella_ bacteria, facilitating the invasion of
lung tissues and increasing the potential of fatal pneumonia.

So Movi can make domestic sheep and goats sick, but infected adults
are often able to survive infections and can appear healthy. So what's
the big deal? Sounds like an agricultural issue rather than a wildlife
issue anyway, right? Well, Movi becomes a bigger topic when it's put
in the context of wild sheep and mountain goat populations. Wild sheep
and goats have little resistance to these bacteria that occur in
healthy domestic sheep and goats.

Since Movi has not been documented in wild populations in Alaska, much
of what we know about the effects of this bacterium comes from the
Lower 48 [US states] and Canada. Movi has frequently been implicated
in dramatic and large-scale die offs in Bighorn sheep populations
throughout the western states, with some populations experiencing
declines of 75 percent or more due to pneumonia outbreaks.
Significantly reduced lamb survival is often commonly reported for
years following outbreaks. Although we don't know much about the
effects of Movi on Dall sheep or mountain goat populations, it seems
reasonable to expect similar outcomes if Movi is introduced into
Alaskan populations.

Like most bacteria that thrive in respiratory tracts, Movi is
transmitted via aerosol and direct contact with infected individuals,
the same way people transmit colds to each other. The end result is
that Movi can easily be transmitted between infected domestic animals
and wild populations if they come in contact. Although infected
domestic stock may appear healthy, they can still spread the bacteria
to wild populations. In some cases, Bighorn sheep die-offs have
occurred following interactions with domestic stock, further
suggesting that Movi can be transmitted from domestic stock to wild
populations.

In Alaska, the risk of transmission between domestic stock and wild
populations is much lower than in the western states where domestic
grazing commonly occurs in wild habitats. One potential route for
transmission of these diseases into wild populations is via hunters
using pack goats while hunting in alpine habitats, which is why this
activity is not allowed in Alaska. The risk of transmission between
livestock near residences and wild populations in Alaska is currently
unknown but interactions do occur. Given the potentially devastating
impacts that might result from introductions, however, monitoring the
prevalence and distribution of Movi in both domestic and wild
populations throughout Alaska is certainly warranted.

As part of continued statewide monitoring, mountain goats captured and
fitted with radio-collars on the Kenai Peninsula during 2017 were
tested for Movi. All goats tested were negative for Movi but continued
monitoring is necessary, particularly on the Kenai Peninsula where the
risk of introduction is greater than in many other parts of Alaska.

The bottom line? Prevention is key. So interest groups from the
agricultural community, private owners, state and federal agencies,
and other stakeholders are currently working to develop a plan to
monitor Movi in domestic stock, with the goal of preventing the
transmission of this and other harmful microorganisms to wild sheep
and goat populations in Alaska.

[Byline: Dom Watts]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map
Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, United States:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/5473>]

******
[2] Montana (Jackson Hole)
Date: Mon 11 Dec 2017
Source: Gillete News Record [edited]
<http://www.gillettenewsrecord.com/article_a2bfceca-6ca7-529e-a6f4-d97795a610b5.html>


Wildlife biologists are seeing signs of an outbreak of pneumonia in a
bighorn sheep herd in northwest Wyoming.

The persistent coughing that's telling of the bacteria-triggered
respiratory sickness has been seen in 2 lambs in the Jackson bighorn
sheep herd that congregates in Jackson Hole.

Wyoming Game and Fish Department biologists say they are concerned.

Pneumonia is a condition caused by infectious pathogens passed along
from domestic sheep.

There are no treatments to combat the malady, and research has found
that culling infected animals does not work.

Wildlife managers plan to locate and euthanize the 2 infected lambs so
their bodies can be sent to the laboratory to determine what triggered
the suspected pneumonia.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map
Jackson Hole, Wyoming, United States:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/22881>

Bighorn sheep pneumonia has traditionally been considered a
multifactorial disease, caused by multiple pathogens. Do to their
complexity, understanding multifactorial phenomena like this, usually
require integrated and sustained research efforts. The absence of
established and universal explanations for pneumonia outbreaks
contributes to conflict among wildlife and livestock stakeholders over
land use and management practices.

However, recent evidence indicates that in northwestern USA there
seems to be a pathogen implicated in bighorn sheep outbreaks,
_Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae_, an exotic disease agent for North America,
introduced by domestic ovids.

The normal host range of _M. ovipneumoniae_ (members of Old World
Caprinae, including domestic sheep) is consistent with many
observations that outbreaks of bighorn sheep pneumonia frequently
follow contact with these hosts. Experiments in which bighorn sheep
were commingled with domestic sheep resulted in bighorn sheep
pneumonia and high death rates. Similar commingling experiments with
other ungulates (deer, elk, llamas, horses, cattle, goats, mountain
goats) resulted at most in sporadic deaths from pneumonia. What might
result from exposure of this pathogen to natural populations of Dall
sheep and mountain goat is unknown and the surveillance efforts
implemented are warranted.

Bighorn sheep pneumonia web of causation may have an important
environmental component. In recent years, die-offs of bighorn sheep in
several locations suggest that the proximate cause of these events may
be a shared environmental determinant. - Mod.PMB]

[See Also:
2016
----
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (07): (SD) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20161223.4719622
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (06): (MT) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20161107.4611801
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (05): (CA) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20160519.4232401
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (04): (NV) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20160409.4149360
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (03): (NV) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20160219.4033226
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (02): (AZ) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20160109.3923355
Pneumonia, ovine - USA: (AZ) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20160105.3911283
2015
----
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (04): (CA) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20151014.3714877
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (03): (ND) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20150920.3659146
Pneumonia ovine - USA (02): (MT) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20150409.3286818
Pneumonia, ovine - USA: (MT) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20150121.31069442014
2014
----
Pneumonia, ovine - USA: (MT) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20141229.3060886
2013
----
Pneumonia ovine - USA (04): (CA) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20130817.1885956
Pneumonia ovine - USA (03): (CA) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20130626.1794259
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (02): (WA) bighorn sheep, comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20130430.1680888
Pneumonia, ovine - USA: (WA) bighorn sheep, euthanasia
http://promedmail.org/post/20130407.1628473
2012
----
Pneumonia, ovine - USA: (WY) bighorn sheep, susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20130130.1520984
2011
----
Pneumonia, ovine - USA (02): (MT) bighorn sheep
http://promedmail.org/post/20111211.3576
Pneumonia, ovine - USA: (NV) bighorn sheep update
http://promedmail.org/post/20110911.2768
and other items in the archives]
.................................................sb/pmb/mj/dk
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and its associated service providers shall not be held
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Posted on 12/14/2017 10:18:00 AM | Categories:

PRO/EDR> Diphtheria - Bangladesh: fatal, susp, Rohingya refugee camp, ex Myanmar, WHO

DIPHTHERIA - BANGLADESH: FATAL, SUSPECTED, ROHINGYA REFUGEE CAMP, ex
MYANMAR, WHO
*********************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Wed 13 Dec 2017
Source: WHO Emergencies preparedness, response, Disease Outbreak News
(DONs) [edited]
<http://www.who.int/csr/don/13-december-2017-diphtheria-bangladesh/en/>


Diphtheria ­- Cox's Bazar in Bangladesh
---------------------------------------
From 3 Nov 2017 through 12 Dec 2017, a total of 804 suspected
diphtheria cases including 15 deaths were reported among the displaced
Rohingya population in Cox's Bazar (Figure 1 [Epidemic curve: Number
of diphtheria cases among the displaced Rohingya population in Cox's
Bazar, Bangladesh reported by date of illness onset from 3 Nov 2017
through 12 Dec 2017 available at source URL]).

Of the suspected cases, 73 percent are younger than 15 years of age
and 60 percent females (the sex for 1 percent cases was not reported).
14 of 15 deaths reported among suspected diphtheria cases were
children younger than 15 years of age. To date, no cases of diphtheria
have been reported from local communities.

Public health response
----------------------
Since August 2017, more than 646 000 people from neighbouring Myanmar
have gathered in densely populated camps and temporary settlements
with poor access to clean water, sanitation, and health services. A
multi-agency diphtheria task force, led by the Ministry of Health
Family Welfare of Bangladesh, has been providing clinical and public
health services to the displaced population. WHO has mobilized USD 3
million from its Contingency Fund for Emergencies (CFE) to support
essential health services in Bangladesh.

WHO is working with health authorities to provide tetanus diphtheria
(Td) vaccines for children aged 7 to 15 years, as well as pentavalent
vaccines (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, _Haemophilus influenzae_
type b, and hepatitis B) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) for
children aged 6 weeks to 6 years [of age]. A list of essential
medicines and required supplies to support the response is being
finalized by WHO and partners. The Serum Institute of India has
donated 300 000 doses of pentavalent vaccines for use in the
response.

WHO risk assessment
-------------------
The current outbreak in Cox's Bazar is evolving rapidly. To date, all
suspected cases have occurred among the displaced Rohingya population,
who are living in temporary settlements with difficult and crowded
conditions. The coverage of diphtheria toxoid containing vaccines
among the displaced Rohingya population is difficult to estimate,
although diphtheria outbreaks are an indication of low overall
population vaccination coverage. Available vaccination data for
Bangladesh indicates that the coverage of diphtheria toxoid containing
vaccines is high. However, spillover into the local population cannot
be ruled out. WHO considers the risk at the national level to be
moderate and low at the regional and global levels.

WHO advice
----------
WHO recommends timely clinical management of suspected diphtheria
cases that is consistent with WHO guidelines consisting of diphtheria
antitoxin, appropriate antibiotics, and implementation of infection
prevention and control measures. High-risk populations such as young
children, close contacts of diphtheria cases, and health workers
should be vaccinated on priority basis. A coordinated response and
community engagement can reduce the risk of further transmission and
help to control the outbreak.

[More information on diphtheria is available at
<http://www.who.int/features/qa/diphtheria/en/> and
<http://www.who.int/topics/diphtheria/en/>].

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Marianne Hopp

[Rohingya refugees from Myanmar arrived in Cox's Bazar district of
Bangladesh, joining an existing refugee population, some of whom have
been in the camps for years, others displaced more recently; as of
late September 2017, Bangladesh was said to be sheltering 800 000
displaced Rohingya
(<https://www.unicefusa.org/stories/unicef-ramps-relief-myanmar-refugees/32834>).

UNICEF USA reports, "The refugee camps and makeshift settlements in
Bangladesh are well over capacity. There is tremendous pressure on
already scarce resources. There are shortages of food, water, and
other necessities. The overcrowded, unhygienic conditions are
increasing the risk of cholera and other disease outbreaks.
Malnutrition and exhaustion make children especially vulnerable."
"UNICEF and partners have been trucking in clean water, installing
latrines, and distributing hygiene kits and water purification
tablets. Response teams are also screening and treating malnourished
children, and mobilizing teams of vaccinators in preparation for what
will be the second largest cholera immunization campaign ever, after
Haiti in 2016."

A map of the region, showing Myanmar and Bangladesh, with the location
of Cox's Bazar, can be found at
<https://www.google.com/maps/place/Cox's+Bazar,+Bangladesh>.

A discussion of diphtheria can be found in my moderator comments in
ProMED-mail posts Diphtheria - Yemen (04): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171213.5500474, Diphtheria - India: (KL):
fatality http://promedmail.org/post/20170423.4989504, Diphtheria -
Venezuela: (BO) resurgence
http://promedmail.org/post/20161002.4530516, and Diphtheria - Norway
ex Mozambique: cutaneous, traveler
http://promedmail.org/post/20140621.2556752. - Mod.ML

HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps
Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, Bangladesh:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/33788>
Myanmar: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/148>]

[See Also:
Diphtheria - Yemen (04): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171213.5500474
Diphtheria - Indonesia: fatal, increasing cases, vaccination campaigns
http://promedmail.org/post/20171209.5493398
Diphtheria - Yemen (03): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171205.5483396
Diphtheria - Yemen (02): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171126.5466156
Diphtheria - Americas: PAHO epidemiological update
http://promedmail.org/post/20171119.5453642
Diphtheria - Yemen: fatal http://promedmail.org/post/20171116.5447646
Diphtheria - Haiti (02) http://promedmail.org/post/20171018.5389422
Diphtheria - Haiti: RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20171011.5374799
Diphtheria - Pakistan: (TA) fatal, NW alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20171004.5358862
Diphtheria - Venezuela (04): (AN) fatal, susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20170919.5326506
Diphtheria - South Africa: (WC) fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170818.5258779
Diphtheria - Venezuela (03): fatal, vaccine & medication shortage
http://promedmail.org/post/20170807.5232271
Diphtheria - Singapore: fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170806.5231573
Diphtheria - Venezuela (02): (ZU)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170623.5126416
Diphtheria - New Zealand: (OT) NOT, corr
http://promedmail.org/post/20170428.5002192
Diphtheria - India (02): (KL) fatality, commentaries
http://promedmail.org/post/20170428.5001146
Diphtheria - New Zealand: (OT)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170427.4999847
Diphtheria - India: (KL): fatality
http://promedmail.org/post/20170423.4989504
Diphtheria - Venezuela: (AN, BO) resurgence
http://promedmail.org/post/20170215.4840005
Diphtheria - Austria (02): cutaneous, tourist, comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20170104.4740536
Diphtheria - Austria: cutaneous, ex Sri Lanka, tourist
http://promedmail.org/post/20170101.4736133
2016
----
Diphtheria - Venezuela: (BO) resurgence
http://promedmail.org/post/20161002.4530516
Diphtheria - Norway ex Mozambique: cutaneous, traveler
http://promedmail.org/post/20140621.2556752
Diphtheria - Myanmar: fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20160611.4279028]
.................................................ml/mj/dk
*##########################################################*
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are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Posted on 12/14/2017 07:52:00 AM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Foodborne illness - Madagascar: (AS) fatal, toxic sardines

FOODBORNE ILLNESS - MADAGASCAR: (ANTSIRANANA) FATAL, TOXIC SARDINES
*******************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: 12 Dec 2017
Source: Linfo. re
<http://www.linfo.re/ocean-indien/madagascar/732461-madagascar-8-morts-a-cause-d-une-intoxication-alimentaire-a-la-sardinelle

[In French trans Corr SB]

Madagascar: 8 deaths due to food poisoning with sardinella

This deadly fish consumed during the rainy season has killed 8 people
in northern Madagascar, with 32 people admitted to Antsiranana
Hospital.

The consumption of sardinella, a kind of large sardine has killed 8
people in Antsiranana in the north of the Big Island. This fish, which
feeds on toxic algae during the rainy season, becomes deadly. In
total, 8 people lost their lives and 32 others are still admitted to
the hospital.

The patients suffer from nausea, headaches and very violent diarrhea.
Among the victims was a 6-year-old child.

Problem of sardinella being sold to the markets

As a result of this deadly food poisoning, city officials went to the
markets to confiscate the sardinella still waiting on the counters,
waiting to be sold. The seized products were immediately buried near
the city of Antsiranana, reports RFI.

For its part, the Malagasy State has also taken its responsibilities
by taking care of the people who have been poisoned.

Open inquiry

Nearly 23 other fish species are also suspected to be toxic during the
rainy season. Researchers in tropical medicine in the Indian Ocean
have explained that toxins are found in the skin, flesh and viscera of
these animals.

City officials continue the raids to ensure traders have destroyed all
their stock of infected fish. An investigation is also under way, but
the police have not yet registered a complaint.
--
Communicated by:
Promed mail from Healthmap alerts





[The article does not tell us enough about the clinical signs the
victims demonstrated. However, historically, the Sardinia sp has most
often been found to have Saxitoixn as the toxic agent in its tissues.

Most often the harmful algal bloom produces saxitoxin. Saxitoxin is
one of the toxins produced in what is known as paralytic shellfish
poisoning.

Saxitoxin is a very potent inhibitor of voltage-gated sodium channels,
but specifically the Navs channels responsible for the initiation and
propagation of action potentials in nerve and muscle cells.

The algae is consumed by the fish where the toxin is then consumed by
humans. - Mod.TG]

[See Also:
Toxic algae - USA (03): (OH) water, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20160617.4292648
Toxic algae - USA (02): (KS) water, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20160616.4290298
Toxic algae - Ireland: (MO) canine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160603.4262566
Toxic algae - USA: (FL) water
http://promedmail.org/post/20160520.4235574
Toxic algae - UK: (LS) blue-green, canine, fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20160523.4238455
Toxic algae - Australia: (NS) blue-green algae, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20160202.3988561
Toxic algae - New Zealand: (CA) blue-green algae
http://promedmail.org/post/20160129.3976985
2015
----
Toxic algae - Australia: blue-green algae
http://promedmail.org/post/20151122.3810134
Toxic algae - UK (04): water, warning
http://promedmail.org/post/20151007.3698634
Toxic algae - UK (03): (England) water, warning
http://promedmail.org/post/20151004.3689405
Toxic algae - Canada (AB) http://promedmail.org/post/20150828.3608622
Toxic algae - UK (02): (England) canine, fatal, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20150825.3599933
Toxic algae - USA (04): (KS) water, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20150822.3596160
Toxic algae - USA (03): (MA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150816.3581352
Toxic algae - UK: (North Wales) warning
http://promedmail.org/post/20150816.3581349
Toxic algae - China (AH) http://promedmail.org/post/20150811.3570037
Toxic algae - USA (02): (MN) alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20150704.3484283
Toxic algae - USA: (MN) pet deaths, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20150616.3440485
2013
----
Toxic algae, municipal water - USA: (OH)
http://promedmail.org/post/20130916.1946699
Toxic algae, fish - USA: (MT)
http://promedmail.org/post/20130910.1934702
Undiagnosed die-off, manatee - USA: (FL) toxic algae susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20130329.1609882
Die-off
, cervids - USA: (NM) blue-green algae
http://promedmail.org/post/20131105.2039171
2002
--

Saxitoxin poisoning, puffer fish - USA (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/20020516.4228]
.................................................sb/tg/dk
*##########################################################*
************************************************************
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
************************************************************
Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:
<http://www.isid.org/donate/>
************************************************************
Visit ProMED-mail's web site at <http://www.promedmail.org>.
Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to
an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name
name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub-
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For assistance from a human being, send mail to:
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Posted on 12/14/2017 07:48:00 AM | Categories:

Are you covered?

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Your health your right

"It is completely unacceptable that at least half the world still lacks coverage for the most essential health services."
-Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO

No one should have to choose between death and financial hardship.

But the shocking truth is that this is a reality for millions of people every year. New data reveal that at least half of the world's 7.3 billion people still do not have access to essential health services, such as having a skilled birth attendant, vaccinations for children or treatment for HIV.

Read the story

What does it mean to be covered?

Universal health coverage means that everyone can access the health services they need, when and where they need them – without facing financial hardship.
Some 800 million people spend more than 10% of their household budget on health care.

Universal health coverage is an investment in human capital and is essential to social and economic development. It is a way to support people so they can reach their full potential and fulfill their aspirations.
 
Report

Health is a right
"The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition".
Statement

Are you protected?
Inequalities in health services are seen not just between, but also within countries: national averages can mask low levels of health service coverage in disadvantaged population groups.
Press release
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Posted on 12/14/2017 07:29:00 AM | Categories: