Wednesday, October 18, 2017

PRO/AH/EDR> Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (11): equine

EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS - USA (11): EQUINE
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[1] New York
[2] New York
[3] Oklahoma
[4] Michigan
[5] North Carolina
[6] North Carolina
[7] Wisconsin
[8] Wisconsin

******
[1] New York
Date: Wed 11 Oct 2017
Source: The Horse [edited]
<http://www.thehorse.com/articles/39790/additional-eee-wnv-cases-confirmed-in-new-york-horses>


The Equine Disease Communication Center (EDCC) reported on 10 Oct 2017
that additional New York horses have tested positive for eastern
equine encephalitis (EEE).

The New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets (NYSDAM)
reported that an Oswego County horse tested positive for EEE and has
been euthanized, the EDCC said.

A viral disease, EEE affects the central nervous system and is
transmitted to horses by infected mosquitoes. Clinical signs of EEE
include moderate to high fever, depression, lack of appetite, cranial
nerve deficits (facial paralysis, tongue weakness, difficulty
swallowing), behavioral changes (aggression, self-mutilation, or
drowsiness), gait abnormalities, or severe central nervous system
signs, such as head-pressing, circling, blindness, and seizures. The
course of EEE can be swift, with death occurring 2-3 days after onset
of clinical signs despite intensive care; fatality rates reach 75-80
percent among horses. Horses that survive might have long-lasting
impairments and neurologic problems.

Vaccines have proven to be a very effective prevention tool for EEE.
Horses that have been vaccinated in past years will need an annual
booster shot; in areas with a prolonged mosquito season, veterinarians
might recommend 2 boosters annually, one in the spring and another in
the fall. However, if an owner did not vaccinate their animal in
previous years, the horse will need the 2-shot vaccination series
within a 3- to 6-week period.

In addition to vaccinations, horse owners also need to reduce the
mosquito populations and their possible breeding areas.
Recommendations include removing stagnant water sources, keeping
animals inside during the bugs' feeding times, which are typically
early in the morning and evening, and applying mosquito repellents
approved for equine use.

[Byline: Erica Larson]

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******
[2] New York
Date: Wed 11 Oct 2017
Source: Oswego County Today [edited]
<https://oswegocountytoday.com/west-monroe-horse-diagnosed-with-eee-residents-urged-to-remain-vigilant/>


The Oswego County Health Department reported today (11 Oct 2017) that
a horse in the town of West Monroe tested positive for the eastern
equine encephalitis virus in the state lab.

The horse was seen by a veterinarian and euthanized on Thursday, 28
Sep 2017.

Oswego County Public Health Director Jiancheng Huang said horses are
very susceptible to mosquito-borne diseases if they are not
vaccinated.

He added, "Despite low mosquito counts, the EEE and West Nile viruses
are still active in southern and central Oswego County. People need to
continue to limit their exposure to mosquitoes until there is a
killing frost."

Health officials believe the source of the virus contracted by the
horse is likely the same area that was previously treated by aerial
spraying.

County and state health departments continue to monitor the
situation.

Huang said, "The purpose of aerial spraying is to control mosquito
populations; however, it does not eliminate all mosquitoes."

Test results reported last week indicated the presence of the EEE and
WNV in mosquito pools located in the towns of Hastings, Palermo and
West Monroe.

The report listed 2 pools as positive for EEE and 4 pools as positive
for WNV for the week of 18 Sep 2017; and 2 pools as positive for EEE
and 2 pools as positive for WNV for the week of 25 Sep 2017.

"Preventing mosquito bites is the best way to protect ourselves from
mosquito-borne diseases," said Huang. "People need to take precautions
when they are hunting, fishing, and enjoying any outdoor activities.
It is very important for everyone to continue to follow their personal
protection practices."

The Oswego County Health Department advises people to:
- Use a mosquito repellent according to label directions.
- Wear shoes, socks, long pants, and a long-sleeved shirt if you are
outdoors for long periods of time, and when mosquitoes are most
active, between dusk and dawn.
- Drain or remove standing water around the home and yard, and replace
or repair broken screens, as usual.

For more information about protecting your family against mosquitoes,
call the Oswego County Health Department at 315-349-3564 or visit the
New York State Department of Health's Web site at
<https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/west_nile_virus/>.

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******
[3] Oklahoma
Date: Thu 12 Oct 2017
Source: The Horse [edited]
<http://www.thehorse.com/articles/39796/oklahoma-confirms-third-equine-eee-case-of-2017>


The Equine Disease Communication Center (EDCC) has reported that
Oklahoma has confirmed its 3rd case of eastern equine encephalitis
(EEE) in a horse for 2017.

The Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry told the
EDCC that "the adult quarter horse mare located in Kay County was
showing moderate neurologic signs. The vaccination history is
unknown."

In addition to vaccinations, horse owners also need to reduce the
mosquito populations and their possible breeding areas.
Recommendations include removing stagnant water sources, keeping
animals inside during the bugs' feeding times, which are typically
early in the morning and evening, and applying mosquito repellents
approved for equine use.

[Byline: Erica Lawson]

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******
[4] Michigan
Date: Fri 13 Oct 2017
Source: wmufm.org [edited]
<http://wnmufm.org/post/eastern-equine-encephalitis-found-marquette-county#stream/0>


Two horses in Marquette County have tested positive for EEE.

EEE is a serious viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The
Marquette County Health Department says it mainly causes neurological
disease in horses but can also cause illness in people, poultry, and
other animals, such as deer and even dogs.

The Department recommends people take steps to protect themselves
against mosquito bites by applying repellant and wearing protective
clothing.

Officials say while it's unusual to detect EEE in the U.P, a horse
from Menominee County tested positive, and one human case was
diagnosed in the U.P. in 2016.

Although there is no vaccine for humans, vaccines for horses are
available. The 2 that tested positive were not vaccinated against the
disease.

[Byline: Nicole Walton

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******
[5] North Carolina
Date: Fri 13 Oct 2017
Source: WITN.com [edited]
<http://www.witn.com/content/news/Onslow-County-horse-believed-to-have-Eastern-Equine-Encephalitis-humans-at-risk-450783313.html>


The Health Director for Onslow County is asking residents to be on
their guard after a horse is believed to have contracted EEE.

EEE can be transmitted through the bite of a mosquito and can infect
both horses and humans, according to Health Director Angela Lee.

Some people infected with EEE have no symptoms. However, those who do
develop symptoms may have fever and joint or muscle pain.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, those
with a severe form of the disease will have "sudden onset of headache,
high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into
disorientation, seizures, and coma."

The diagnosis for the horse is presumptive because it is based on the
pony's clinical symptoms and a preliminary test that shows the pony
had recently been exposed to the EEE virus.

Although there is no vaccine for humans, there is one for horses, so
owners should have their animals immunized. Owners should check with
their veterinarian to determine the best vaccination schedule for
their horses.

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******
[6] North Carolina
Date: Fri 13 Oct 2017
Source: Sampson Independent [edited]
<http://www.clintonnc.com/news/24274/second-case-of-eastern-equine-encephalitis-eee-identifiedin-a-sampson-county-horse>


Another case of EEE has recently been identified in a North Carolina
horse. Two of the cases are horses from Sampson County. The virus,
which can infect both humans and horses, was 1st detected in the 1st
Sampson County horse on 15 Sep 2017, and in a 2nd horse on 9 Oct 2017.
Due to the severity of the disease, both of the animals were
euthanized. No human cases of EEE have been identified in N.C. so far
this year [2017].

EEE is one of the most severe diseases in both horses and humans in
the United States. Although rare in North Carolina, once a person is
infected, there is a 33 percent likelihood of death. Survivors of EEE
may suffer from long term effects to the nervous system including
brain damage. Those under age 15 and over age 50 are at greatest risk
of developing severe disease.

In North Carolina, EEE is more common in the eastern part of the
state, where the virus is normally passed back and forth between wild
birds and mosquitoes. In most cases, a particular species of mosquito,
_Culiseta melanura_, is responsible for EEE. This mosquito spends most
of its time in freshwater hardwood swamps and prefers to bite birds
rather than horses and humans, which is why human and horse cases are
rare. From 2011-2015, only 4 human cases of EEE occurred in N.C., with
infection occurring from July through October.

There is a vaccine for horses. The American Association of Equine
Practitioners recommends vaccination against EEE as a part of a core
vaccination protocol for all horses:
<https://aaep.org/guidelines/vaccination-guidelines/core-vaccination-guidelines>.
Once a horse is infected, therapy is limited to treating the symptoms
of the disease, and there is no specific cure.

There is no vaccine to protect humans from EEE, and no cure once a
human is infected. Therapy is limited to treating the symptoms of the
disease. However, humans can protect themselves from EEE with
repellents during the months that mosquitos are prevalent, with
particular focus on the months of July through October. Extended
periods of warm weather can prolong the mosquito population season.
Use of repellants as protection is very important during this time
<https://www.epa.gov/insect-repellents/find-repellent-right-you>. A
2nd method is judicious suppression of mosquito populations,
especially in areas near freshwater hardwood swamps
<https://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/controlling-mosquitoes-at-home.html>.

The health department advises the public to remain diligent in their
personal mosquito protection efforts. These efforts should include the
"5 D's" for prevention:

- Dusk and Dawn - Minimize time outdoors when mosquitoes are seeking
blood. The common species that transmit EEE to humans often bite at
just before or after sunset or sunrise.

- Dress - Wear loose, light-colored clothing that covers your skin.

- DEET - When the potential exists for exposure to mosquitoes,
repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide,) are
recommended. Picaridin and oil of lemon eucalyptus are other repellent
options. See www.epa.gov/insect-repellents for options.

- Drainage - Check around your home to rid the area of standing water,
which is where mosquitoes can lay their eggs.

- Dispose of any tires. Tires can breed thousands of mosquitoes.

- Drill holes in the bottom of recycling containers.

- Clear roof gutters of debris.

- Clean pet water dishes regularly.

- Check and empty children's toys.

- Repair leaky outdoor faucets.

- Change the water in bird baths at least once a week.

- Turn over canoes and other boats, or treat them with approved
larvicides.

- Avoid water collecting on pool covers.

- Empty water collected in tarps or any other items that can hold
water around the yard or on woodpiles. Even the smallest of containers
can breed hundreds to thousands of mosquitoes. They don't need much
water to lay their eggs. (bottles, barrels, buckets, overturned
garbage can lids, outside garbage cans without lids, etc.)

- Plug or fill tree holes.

- Add minnows to isolated water such as rain barrels and ornamental
ponds

- Use screened windows and doors and make sure screens fit tightly and
are not torn.

- Keep tight-fitting screens or lids on rain barrels.

If you have specific questions pertaining to your horse and EEE,
please consult your veterinarian or the NCDA&CS at 919-733-7601.
Recently, NCDA&CS stressed the importance of vaccination for horses:
<http://www.ncagr.gov/paffairs/release/2010/6-10Equinevaccinations.htm>.

For specific questions regarding mosquito control and prevention,
contact the Sampson County Health Department at 910-592-1131.

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******
[7] Wisconsin
Date: Tue 17 Oct 2017
Source: Wausau Dailey Herald [edited]
<http://www.wausaudailyherald.com/story/news/2017/10/17/marathon-county-horse-tests-positive-mosquito-borne-disease/771883001/>


A horse in Marathon County has tested positive for a mosquito-borne
disease known as eastern equine encephalitis.

The disease, caused by the EEE virus, is transmitted by infected
mosquitoes, according to the Marathon County Health Department. The
positive test result in the horse means there are mosquitoes in the
area carrying the virus that could infect other animals and people.

In response, the Health Department is urging people to take measures
to avoid mosquito bites until cold weather eliminates them. The
department recommends limiting time outside at dusk and dawn, using
insect repellent on clothing and exposed skin, and trimming tall grass
and weeds. It also suggests ways to eliminate or monitor sources of
still water.

Most people infected with EEE don't have symptoms, the agency said,
but it can cause brain inflammation in some. No cases in humans have
been reported in Wisconsin since 2011, and only 2 known cases have
occurred since 1964.

Signs of EEE in horses include depression, drooping eyelids and lower
lip, and loss of appetite. Owners can vaccinate their horses to
prevent the illness.

More information about EEE can be found on the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention's website.

[Byline: Haley BeMiller]

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******
[8] Wisconsin
Date: Mon 16 Oct 2017
Source: Equi Management [edited]
<https://equimanagement.com/news/horse-deaths-from-equine-diseases-in-ohio-and-wisconsin>


The Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer
Protection has confirmed 2 new cases of EEE in horses for 2017. Those
cases bring the total to 23 in the state this year [2017].

The 1st horse, located in Price County, was a yearling Friesian
stallion of unknown vaccination history purchased this spring. He
began showing clinical signs (fever, ataxia, head tilt, head pressing
and disorientation) on 20 Sep 2017, and a veterinarian was called to
the farm that day. The horse was euthanized.

The 2nd confirmed EEE case in a horse occurred in an unvaccinated
10-year-old Appaloosa gelding from Marathon County. The horse began
showing clinical signs (fever, recumbency, paddling) on 2 Oct 2017 and
was sampled and euthanized that day.

The Equine Disease Communication Center (EDCC) works to protect horses
and the horse industry from the threat of infectious diseases in North
America. The communication system is designed to seek and report real
time information about disease outbreaks similar to how the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) alerts the human population
about diseases in people.

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[There are a number of EEE cases as well as other arboviral-associated
cases being posted on a regular basis this year [2017]. With very good
vaccines available, I cannot seem to figure out why horse owners are
failing to vaccinate. There are other diseases that we almost beg for
a vaccine to protect our animals from, and yet when we have one, there
are so many people who think there is no need to vaccinate.

The reality is, regardless of where you live, mosquitoes can transmit
diseases to your horses. Please use the vaccine. It is effective in
preventing the disease. - Mod.TG

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/106>.]

[See Also:
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (10): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20171012.5375169
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (NJ) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170928.5345701
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (08): (GA, OH) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170903.5291739
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (GA,WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170827.5277027
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (06): (AL,NC) sentinel chicken,
equine http://promedmail.org/post/20170806.5230898
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (05): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170730.5216046
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (04): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170726.5206247
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (SC) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170725.5203111
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (GA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170722.5197500
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA: (FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170121.4781360
2016
----
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (28): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161108.4615110
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (27): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161104.4607948
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA :(26) (SC, FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161020.4573611
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (25): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161012.4553781
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (24): (FL,WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160922.4506635
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (23): (WI) emus
http://promedmail.org/post/20160921.4505968
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (22): (WI,MI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160918.4496371
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (21): (NJ,WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160903.4462461
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (20): (NC,NJ) equine, human
http://promedmail.org/post/20160831.4453085
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (19): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160822.4432006
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (18): (SC,TX) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160818.4423685
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (17): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160813.4413695
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (16): (FL,TN) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160804.4394950
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (15): (FL, SC) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160728.4374635
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (14): (FL,VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160726.4369305
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (13): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160717.4350805
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160707.4330958
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (FL,SC,VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160630.4319558
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160519.4233254
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (FL) equine]
.................................................sb/tg/msp/ml
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Posted on 10/18/2017 06:18:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Monkeypox - Africa (12): Nigeria

MONKEYPOX - AFRICA (12): NIGERIA
********************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

In this update:
[1] Geographic spread
[2] Comparisons

******
[1] Geographic spread
Date: Wed 18 Oct 2017
Source: Premium Times [edited]
<https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/246507-monkeypox-suspected-cases-nigeria-spread-11-states-minister.html>


The monkeypox virus may have spread to 11 states with 74 suspected
cases recorded, Minister of Health, Isaac Adewole, has said.

Mr. Adewole made the disclosure in Abuja on Wednesday [18 Oct 2017]
when he briefed State House correspondents on the outcome of the
meeting of the Federal Executive Council, FEC.

President Muhammadu Buhari chaired the meeting held at the State House
Council Chamber, Abuja.

The Federal Government on 11 Oct [2017] confirmed that 33 suspected
cases of the virus were recorded in 7 states.

However, after samples of the suspected cases were sent for test at a
WHO laboratory in Senegal, only 3 cases from Bayelsa tested positive.

Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from
animals) with symptoms in humans similar to those seen in the past in
smallpox patients, although less severe.

Smallpox was eradicated in 1980. However, monkeypox still occurs
sporadically in some parts of Africa.

The minister, who updated the Council on developments in respect of
the outbreak, listed the affected States as Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross
River, Delta, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Lagos, Nasarawa and Rivers as well as
the FCT.

"The Council also received an update on the state of the public health
of the nation. We informed the council about the latest development in
respect of the monkeypox virus outbreak. So far as of today, there are
74 suspected cases in 11 states of the country.

"We have confirmed 3 from Bayelsa, and 12 of the suspected cases from
Bayelsa tested negative; 4 suspected cases from Lagos tested negative.
We are still expecting the results of the other ones.

"We are also doing tests at the African Centre of Excellence for
Genomics of Infectious Diseases (ACEGID), Edeh, to really understand
the genomics of this virus. "Even when they are negative, the
laboratory attendant should be able to tell us what exactly they are,"
he said.

The minister dismissed the rumour that the military was spreading
monkeypox virus through vaccination. He said that the military was
never involved in any vaccination in the country, adding that any
vaccination must involve state governments and the Federal Ministry of
Health.

"It is also important to dispel the rumour circulating in the country
that the military is vaccinating people and trying to spread monkeypox
across the country. The military is not involved in any vaccination
exercise."

"And I must educate Nigerians about how vaccination campaigns are
done. The Federal Government will take the lead, but we do not conduct
campaigns without working with states. So, there is no way we will do
campaigns without working with the states,'' he said.

--
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[So far, the only confirmed cases are the 3 from Bayelsa state. The
status of the 74 cases in the other 10 states is not yet determined by
laboratory test. However, the above report indicates that 12 other
cases in Bayelsa state and 4 from Lagos were tested and found negative
for monkeypox.

It is not clear whether these 16 cases are included in the 74 untested
suspected monkeypox cases or have been subtracted from a larger 90
case total. What is urgent, given the apparent spread of cases to 4
new states, is that these cases be laboratory tested to confirm or
eliminate monkeypox as the etiological agent involved. Earlier, a
health official indicated that some of these cases were varicella
(chickenpox). The appearance of this many cases in such a wide
geographic area in just a few days would be very unusual for
monkeypox.

As noted before in the previous post, the main reservoirs of monkeypox
virus are suspected to be rodents, including rope squirrels
(_Funisciurus_ spp; an arboreal rodent) and terrestrial rodents in the
genera _Cricetomys_ and _Graphiurus_). Laboratory confirmation of the
etiologies of these 74 suspected cases either as monkeypox,
chickenpox, or some other pathogen are essential in order to
understand what is going on. There may well be more than one pathogen
circulating in the 11 states.

Maps of Nigeria can be accessed at
<http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/nigeria.pdf> and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62>. - Mod.TY]

******
[2] Comparisons
Date: Sun 15 Oct 2017
From: Steve Berger <steve@gideononline.com> [edited]


Outbreaks of varicella and monkeypox in Africa are occasionally
mistaken for smallpox. The cited table at this URL was generated by an
interactive tool in Gideon (<http://www.GideonOnline.com>) which
allows users to generate custom charts that contrast clinical
features, drug spectra or microbial phenotypes. See differential chart
at:
<https://www.gideononline.com/2017/10/14/varicella-vs-monkeypox/>.

--
Steve Berger
Tel Aviv Medical Center
<steve@gideononline.com>

[ProMED-mail thanks Dr. Steve Berger for this contribution.

Health care providers attending these suspected cases may find the
differential chart helpful. - Mod.TY

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62>.]

[See Also:
Monkeypox - Africa (11): Nigeria
http://promedmail.org/post/20171017.5386734
Monkeypox - Africa (10): Nigeria
http://promedmail.org/post/20171016.5384844
Monkeypox - Africa (09): Nigeria, hospital cases NOT, other states'
cases susp. http://promedmail.org/post/20171014.5380964
Monkeypox - Africa (08): Nigeria
http://promedmail.org/post/20171010.5369514
Monkeypox - Africa (07): Nigeria
http://promedmail.org/post/20171009.5368881
Monkeypox - Africa (06): Nigeria
http://promedmail.org/post/20171007.536663]
.................................................dk/ty/msp/ml
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information, and of any statements or opinions based
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using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Posted on 10/18/2017 06:13:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/EDR> Diphtheria - Haiti (02)

DIPHTHERIA - HAITI (02)
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A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

[1]
Date: Thu 12 Oct 2017
Source: Apollon M Destine <promed@promedmail.org> [edited]


Re: ProMED-mail post Diphtheria - Haiti: RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20171011.5374799
-------------------------------------------------------------
Since year 2014 we have registered diphtheria cases. For the period
2014-2017, more than 90 cases were notified in the National
epidemiologic surveillance system, for a letality rate of 30 percent.
Most of the deaths were aged between 5 and 14 years old. Diphteria's
cases still a big concern in Haiti.

--
Communicated by:
EpiCore Surveillance Project member
Apollon M Destine
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[2]
Date: Thu 12 Oct 2017
Source: EpiCore Global Surveillance Project [edited]


Re: ProMED-mail post Diphtheria - Haiti: RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20171011.5374799
-------------------------------------------------------------
The country is currently is experiencing a comeback of diphtheria due
to a gap in vaccination of children; there have been at least 300
cases reported in the last 12 months countrywide.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[3]
Date: Wed 18 Oct 2017
Source: Rania A. Tohme <ihb1@cdc.gov> [edited]


Re: ProMED-mail post Diphtheria - Haiti: RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20171011.5374799
-------------------------------------------------------------
The latest publically available data on diphtheria in Haiti are
available in PAHO's Epidemiological Update published on August 22,
2017.

<http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&Itemid=270&gid=41629&lang=en>

The cases are not limited to the central plateau but have been
reported in other departments.

--
Communicated by:
Rania A. Tohme, MD, MPH
Team Lead - Targeted Vaccine Preventable Diseases
Accelerated Disease Control and VPD Surveillance Branch
Global Immunization Division
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
<ihb1@cdc.gov>

[ProMED-mail thanks Dr. Rania A. Tohme and the EpiCore Global
Surveillance Project members who submitted responses to our request
for further information.

The following is extracted from the reference supplied by Dr. Tohne:
Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization.
Epidemiological Update: Diphtheria. 22 August 2017, Washington, D.C.:
PAHO/WHO; 2017. Available at:
<http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&Itemid=270&gid=41629&lang=en>.

Diphtheria in the Americas - Summary of the situation
- [In 2017], from epidemiological week (EW) 1 to EW 32 of 2017, three
countries in the Americas reported suspected and confirmed diphtheria
cases: Brazil (1 case), Haiti (80 cases), and the Bolivarian Republic
of Venezuela (123 cases).
- In 2016, three countries in the Americas reported 78 confirmed
diphth- eria cases: the Dominican Republic (2 cases), Haiti (56
cases), and Venezuela (20 cases).
- In 2015, five countries in the Americas reported 49 confirmed
diphtheria cases: Brazil (12 cases), Canada (3 cases), the Dominican
Republic (1 case), Guatemala (1 case), and Haiti (32 cases).

In Brazil, in EW 30 of 2017, a diphtheria case was confirmed in the
state of Roraima, which likely was infected in Venezuela. There were
no secondary cases related to this case.

In Haiti, between EW 1 and EW 30 of 2017, a total of 72 probable
diphtheria cases1 were reported. Most (74%) of the cases are aged zero
to 10 years and 60% are women. Of the total cases, 22 were laboratory
confirmed, including 3 deaths (case fatality rate of 13.6 % among
confirmed cases). Vaccination status is unknown for 54.5% of the
confirmed cases, 18.2% were vaccinated, and 27.3% were not vaccinated.
The confirmed cases come from four departments: Artibonite, Centre,
Ouest, and Sud Est.

In Venezuela, between EW 28 of 2016 and EW 24 of 2017, a total of 447
suspected diphtheria cases (324 in 2016 and 123 in 2017) were
reported, of which 51 were laboratory confirmed, including 7 deaths
[Anzoátegui (2 fatal cases), Bolívar (1 fatal case), Monagas (3
fatal cases), and Sucre (1 fatal case)]; the cumulative case fatality
rate among confirmed cases is 20%. The cases were reported by 17
federal entities: Anzoátegui (37 cases), Apure (19 cases), Barinas (2
cases), Bolívar (282 cases), Carabobo (1 case), Cojedes (6 cases),
Distrito Capital (9 cases), Merida (3 cases), Miranda (29 cases),
Monagas (26 cases), Nueva Esparta (1 case), Portuguesa (2 cases),
Sucre (10 cases), Trujillo (3 cases), Vargas (5 cases), Yaracuy (4
cases), and Zulia (8 cases). Of the 51 laboratory confirmed cases, 55%
are women and 47% correspond to the age group 5 to 19 years. With
regard to the vaccination status of the confirmed cases, 78% had an
incomplete schedule, 15% were not vaccinated, and for 7% the
vaccination status is unknown.

1 According to the Haiti Ministry of Public Health and Population, a
probable case is defined as a person, regardless of age, with
laryngitis, pharyngitis, or tonsillitis with adherent pseudomembranes
on tonsils, pharynx, and/or nostrils in conjunction with neck edema.

Guidelines for Member States
The Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization
(PAHO/WHO) urges Member States to continue their efforts to ensure
high rates of vaccination coverage, using strategies allowing them to
reach the appropriate levels in all their territorial entities.
PAHO/WHO also recommends that Member States strengthen their
surveillance systems for the early detection of suspected cases, in
order to initiate timely treatment, including of contacts, and
ensuring the provision of diphtheria antitoxin.

References
1. PAHO/WHO. 2016. Number of Vaccine Preventable Disease (VPD) cases
in the Americas. Available at:
<http://ais.paho.org/phip/viz/im_vaccinepreventablediseases.asp>

- Mod.ML

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/25>.]

[See Also:
Diphtheria - Haiti: RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20171011.5374799
2016
----
Diphtheria - Haiti: fatal, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20160401.4132685
2010
----
Diphtheria - Haiti: (Port-au-Prince)
http://promedmail.org/post/20100519.1644
2009
----
Diphtheria - Haiti: RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20091030.3755]
.................................................ml/ao/ml
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Posted on 10/18/2017 02:05:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever - Europe (26): Ukraine, domestic swine, OIE

AFRICAN SWINE FEVER - EUROPE (26): UKRAINE, DOMESTIC SWINE, OIE
***************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

In this post:
[1] African swine fever - Ukraine: (Cherkassy) domestic swine
[2] African swine fever - Ukraine: (Lugansk), domestic swine
[3] African swine fever - Ukraine: (Zhitomir), domestic swine

******
[1] African swine fever - Ukraine: (Cherkassy) domestic swine
Date: Wed 18 Oct 2017
OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease
information 2017; 30(42) [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=25051>


African swine fever (ASF), Ukraine
----------------------------------
Information received on [and dated] 18 Oct 2017 from Dr Andrii Zhuk,
1st deputy head of the State Service of Ukraine on Food Safety and
Consumer Production, International Cooperation of the State Service of
Ukraine on Food Safety and Consumer Protection, UKR Ministry of
Agrarian Policy and Food, Kiev, Ukraine

Summary
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 12 Oct 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 13 Oct 2017
Reason for notification: recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 29 Aug 2017
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: African swine fever virus [ASFV]
Nature of diagnosis: laboratory (basic)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Yatranivka, Umanskyi, Cherkassy
Date of start of the outbreak: 12 Oct 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: backyard
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 1 / 1 / 1 / 0 / 0

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate /
Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Swine / 100 / 100 / 100 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction,
and/or slaughter

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or
inconclusive

Control measures
Measures applied: movement control inside the country; surveillance
within containment and/or protection zone; traceability; quarantine;
official disposal of carcasses; by-products and waste; stamping out;
control of wildlife reservoirs; zoning; disinfection; disinfestations;
ante and post-mortem inspections; vaccination permitted (if a vaccine
exists); no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
State Scientific and Research Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis and
Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise (national laboratory) / swine /
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) / 13 Oct 2017 / Positive

Future reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[2] African swine fever - Ukraine: (Lugansk), domestic swine
Date: Thu 12 Oct 2017
OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease
information 2017; 30(41) [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=25013>


African swine fever (ASF), Ukraine
----------------------------------
Information received on [and dated] 12 Oct 2017 from Dr Andrii Zhuk,
1st deputy head of the State Service of Ukraine on Food Safety and
Consumer Production, International Cooperation of the State Service of
Ukraine on Food Safety and Consumer Protection, UKR Ministry of
Agrarian Policy and Food, Kiev, Ukraine

Summary
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 9 Oct 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 11 Oct 2017
Reason for notification: Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 20 Mar 2017
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: African swine fever virus [ASFV]
Nature of diagnosis: laboratory (basic)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Korjove, Svativskyi, Lugansk
Date of start of the outbreak: 9 Oct 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: backyard
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 5 / 5 / 1 / 4 / 0

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate /
Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Swine / 100 / 20 / 20 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction,
and/or slaughter

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or
inconclusive

Control measures
Measures applied: movement control inside the country; surveillance
within containment and/or protection zone; traceability; quarantine;
official disposal of carcasses; by-products and waste; stamping out;
control of wildlife reservoirs; zoning; disinfection; disinfestations;
ante and post-mortem inspections; vaccination permitted (if a vaccine
exists); no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
State Scientific and Research Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis and
Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise (national laboratory) / swine /
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) / 11 Oct 2017 / Positive

Future reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[3] African swine fever - Ukraine: (Zhitomir); domestic swine
Date: Mon 10 Oct 2017
OIE; WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database); weekly disease
information 2017; 30(42) [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=24986>


African swine fever (ASF); Ukraine
----------------------------------
Information received on [and dated] 10 Oct 2017 from Dr Andrii Zhuk;
1st deputy head of the State Service of Ukraine on Food Safety and
Consumer Production, International Cooperation of the State Service of
Ukraine on Food Safety and Consumer Protection, UKR Ministry of
Agrarian Policy and Food, Kiev; Ukraine

Summary
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 5 Oct 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 6 Oct 2017
Reason for notification: recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 20 Jan 2017
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: African swine fever virus [ASFV]
Nature of diagnosis: laboratory (basic)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Holovky; Malynskyi; Zhitomir
Date of start of the outbreak: 5 Oct 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: backyard
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 12 / 3 / 3 / 9 / 0

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent; expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate /
Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Swine / 25 / 25 / 100 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death; destruction;
and/or slaughter

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or
inconclusive

Control measures
Measures applied: movement control inside the country; surveillance
within containment and/or protection zone; traceability; quarantine;
official disposal of carcasses; by-products and waste; stamping out;
control of wildlife reservoirs; zoning; disinfection; disinfestations;
vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists); no treatment of affected
animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
State Scientific and Research Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis and
Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise (national laboratory) / swine /
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) / 6 Oct 2017 / Positive

Future reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The current situation for each of the active events of ASF in Ukraine
is available in the OIE WAHID database, under the section "Summary of
Immediate notifications and Follow-ups" at
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/Immsummary>.
To see the information; choose the disease and period of time of your
interest.

All outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) reported from 1 Jan 2015 to
date (18 Oct 2017) can be seen on the interactive map at
<http://tinyurl.com/ycux6zlo> (click on the section of interest on the
map; and zoom in). - Mod.CRD

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/57769>.]

[See Also:
African swine fever - Europe (25): Russia (KX), domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20171006.5365621
African swine fever - Europe (24): Ukraine (CH, LV) domestic swine,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20171003.5357589
African swine fever - Europe (23): Ukraine (KS, DT) domestic swine,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20170924.5337968
African swine fever - Europe (22): Ukraine (PL) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170910.5307678
African swine fever - Europe (21): Czech Rep, Romania, Poland, wild
boar, spread http://promedmail.org/post/20170902.5291023
African swine fever - Europe (20): update, international impact
http://promedmail.org/post/20170821.5263661
African swine fever - Europe (19): Ukraine (DP), domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170819.5261628
African swine fever - Europe (18): Czech Republic (ZK) wild boar,
spread, control http://promedmail.org/post/20170819.5260788
African swine fever - Europe (17): Romania (SM) domestic, 1st rep, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170801.5218650
African swine fever - Europe (16): Czech Republic (ZK) wild boar,
Hungary, alert http://promedmail.org/post/20170726.5207022
African swine fever - Europe (15): Czech Republic (ZK) wild boar,
spread, concern http://promedmail.org/post/20170720.5192272
African swine fever - Europe (14): Ukraine (CH), domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170719.5187465
African swine fever - Europe (13): Russia (OM), domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170717.5183098
African swine fever - Europe (12): Lithuania, Estonia (SA) domestic
swine, RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20170715.5177425
African swine fever - Europe (11): Czech Republic (ZK) wild boar, 1st
rep. OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20170628.5135273
African swine fever - Europe (10): Ukraine (ZK) wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170604.5083066
African swine fever - Europe (09): Ukraine (CK, PL) domestic swine,
spread http://promedmail.org/post/20170517.5042246
African swine fever - Europe (08): Moldova, Russia, domestic swine,
OIE
African swine fever - Europe (07): Moldova (SO) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170311.4894530
African swine fever - Europe (06): Ukraine (IF,ZP) wild, domestic
swine, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20170228.4870147
African swine fever - Europe (05): Ukraine (VI, CK) porcine, domestic,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20170212.4834453
African swine fever - Europe (04): Ukraine (DP) porcine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170205.4817716
African swine fever - Europe (03): Ukraine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170124.4788927
African swine fever - Europe (02): Latvia (KM) domestic
http://promedmail.org/post/20170117.4769937
African swine fever - Europe (01): Ukraine (LH) porcine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170113.4761996
2016
----
African swine fever - Europe (19): Ukraine (ZK) captive wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20161229.4731665
African swine fever - Europe (18): Ukraine (ZT) porcine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20161216.4702365
African swine fever - Europe (17): Ukraine (KV) porcine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20161105.4609610
African swine fever - Europe (15): Moldova (DO) domestic swine, first
report, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20161004.4535950
African swine fever - Europe (14): Moldova (DO) domestic swine, susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20160929.4525246
African swine fever - Europe (13): Ukraine (KK) swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160904.4464632
African swine fever - Europe (12): Ukraine (VI,VO) swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160830.4452536
African swine fever - Europe (11): Russia, control, economic impact
http://promedmail.org/post/20160830.4451464
African swine fever - Europe (08): Russia, wild boar, domestic swine,
spread http://promedmail.org/post/20160726.4369647
African swine fever - Europe (06): Russia, wild boar, domestic swine,
spread http://promedmail.org/post/20160623.4305009
African swine fever - Europe (07): Ukraine (CK) domestic swine, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20160710.4336147
African swine fever - Europe (05): Ukraine (CV) swine, OIE, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20160610.4275685
African swine fever - Europe (04): Ukraine (SM) swine, OIE, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20160525.4243371
African swine fever - Europe (03): Ukraine (KM) swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160513.4219022
African swine fever - Europe (02): Ukraine (KH) swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160316.4098463
African swine fever - Europe: Ukraine (ZT) wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20160209.4007433
2015
----
African swine fever - Europe (18): Ukraine, Russia, Baltic, Poland,
spread http://promedmail.org/post/20150822.3595512
African swine fever - Europe (17): Russia, Ukraine, Baltic, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20150815.3580029
African swine fever - Ukraine (09): (CK) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20151109.3776789
African swine fever - Ukraine (08): (OD, MY) domestic swine, OIE,
spread http://promedmail.org/post/20151029.3752440
African swine fever - Ukraine (07): (PL) domestic swine, OIE, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20151023.3739261
African swine fever - Ukraine (06): (RV) domestic swine, OIE, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20150908.3632398
African swine fever - Ukraine (05): (PL) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150812.3573464
African swine fever - Ukraine (04): (ZT) wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150707.3489805
African swine fever - Ukraine (03): (Rovno) wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150703.3482869
African swine fever - Ukraine (02): (CH) domestic swine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150630.3471621
African swine fever - Ukraine: (KV) wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150509.3350794]
.................................................crd/ao/ml
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and its associated service providers shall not be held
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Posted on 10/18/2017 12:25:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Salmonellosis, st Enteritidis - Canada (04): frozen chicken, alert, recall, RFI

SALMONELLOSIS, SEROTYPE ENTERITIDIS - CANADA (04): FROZEN CHICKEN
PRODUCTS, ALERT, RECALL, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
******************************************************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Wed 18 Oct 2017 6:58 AM AT
Source: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) News [edited]
<http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/prince-edward-island/pei-janes-chicken-recall-1.4359802>


Janes Pub Style Chicken Burgers and Pub Style Snacks Popcorn Chicken
have been recalled because of possible _Salmonella_ contamination, as
part of an investigation of an illness outbreak. The burgers carry a
best before date of 12 May [2018] with UPC code 0 69299 12491 0 and
the popcorn chicken 18 May [2018] with UPC code 0 69299 12542 9, with
both in the 800-gram size. The frozen food products were sold at
stores across Canada. The recalled products should be thrown out or
returned to the store where they were purchased.

In its food recall warning, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency [CFIA]
said the recall was triggered by findings during an investigation of a
foodborne illness outbreak. It did not say if there were cases of
illness directly related to these products.

The Public Health Agency of Canada is also involved in the
investigation. In September 2017, the agency issued a notice it was
investigating 13 cases of salmonellosis in eastern Canada, including
Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The Public Health
Agency warned that salmonella is commonly found in raw chicken, and
that all chicken should be fully cooked in order to make it safe to
eat. The investigation is continuing, says the CFIA, and that could
lead to more recalls.

[Byline: Kevin Yarr]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[I have placed this posting in the ongoing thread but it is not
entirely clear that the recalled product is a source of the outbreak
of _S._ Enteritidis strain. More information would be appreciated. -
Mod.LL

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/12>.]

[See Also:
Salmonellosis, st Enteritidis - Canada (03): frozen chicken products
http://promedmail.org/post/20171003.5357726
Salmonellosis, st Enteritidis - Canada (02): frozen chicken products,
RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20170929.5349333
Salmonellosis, st Enteritidis - Canada: frozen chicken products
http://promedmail.org/post/20170627.5134014
2016
----
Salmonellosis - Canada (02): (ON) restaurant
http://promedmail.org/post/20160910.4477376
Salmonellosis - Canada: (BC) raw pet food
http://promedmail.org/post/20160426.4184319
2015
----
Salmonellosis, st. infantis - Canada: RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20151021.3734105
Salmonellosis - Canada (02): frozen raw breaded chicken
http://promedmail.org/post/20150707.3489700
Salmonellosis - Canada: live poultry
http://promedmail.org/post/20150526.3386463
2014
----
Salmonellosis, multi serotypes - North America (02): (Canada) chia,
update http://promedmail.org/post/20140625.2565031
Salmonellosis, multi serotypes - North America: (USA, Canada) chia
http://promedmail.org/post/20140613.2534744
Salmonellosis, st Typhimurium - Canada: feeder rodents
http://promedmail.org/post/20140604.2517104
Salmonellosis, st. Cotham - Canada: bearded dragons
http://promedmail.org/post/20140601.2512960
Salmonellosis, st. Newport & Hartford - Canada: chia powder, alert,
recall http://promedmail.org/post/20140601.2512959]
.................................................ll/mj/ml
*##########################################################*
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are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
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or archived material.
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Posted on 10/18/2017 12:18:00 PM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Plague - Seychelles (06): NOT, WHO results

PLAGUE - SEYCHELLES (06): NOT, WHO RESULTS
******************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Wed 18 Oct 2017
Source: WHO Media centre News releases:\, 2017
<http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/seychelles-plague-negative/en/>


Suspected cases from Seychelles test negative for plague
--------------------------------------------------------
Samples from patients in Seychelles suspected to be ill with pneumonic
plague tested negative at a WHO partner laboratory in Paris, France on
Tue 17 Oct 2017. The 10 samples were shipped by the Seychelles
Ministry of Health and WHO to the collaborating centre for Yersinia at
the Institut Pasteur to confirm the status of several suspected and
one probable case -- a 34-year-old Seychelles national who had
returned from Madagascar with plague-like symptoms.

WHO is working with the Seychelles health authorities to reduce the
risk of plague spreading from neighbouring Madagascar, which faces an
unprecedented outbreak that has killed more than 70 people since
August 2017. No plague cases have been confirmed in the Seychelles.

Alongside support for laboratory testing, WHO has deployed experts and
medical supplies to the 115-island country. WHO is also providing
guidance for the tracing and treatment of contacts of people who are
suspected to have been infected.

"We are working with health authorities to reduce the risk of the
spread of plague in the Seychelles by improving surveillance and
preparedness," said Dr Ibrahima Soce Fall, WHO Regional Emergencies
Director for the Africa region.

WHO is advising the Government of Seychelles on the implementation of
public health measures that are in line with the WHO International
Health Regulations, such as enhanced surveillance, isolation and
treatment of suspect cases, contact tracing and prophylactic treatment
of potential contacts.

WHO currently assesses the risk of spread of plague in the Seychelles
to be low.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

[It appears that none of the suspected case samples as well as the
samples from the probable case have been found to be positive for
_Yersinia pestis_ in WHO testing. It is likely that the diagnostic
test employed utilizes a monoclonal antibody against the bacterial F1
antigen:

Chanteau S, Rahalison L, Ralafiarisoa L, et al. Development and
testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague.
Lancet. 2003; 361(9353): 211-6;
<http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(03)12270-2/fulltext>

"Abstract
---------
Background: Plague is often fatal without prompt and appropriate
treatment. It affects mainly poor and remote populations. Late
diagnosis is one of the major causes of human death and spread of the
disease, since it limits the effectiveness of control measures. We
aimed to develop and assess a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for plague.

Methods: We developed a test that used monoclonal antibodies to the F1
antigen of _Yersinia pestis_. Sensitivity and specificity were
assessed with a range of bacterial cultures and clinical samples, and
compared with findings from available ELISA and bacteriological tests
for plague. Samples from patients thought to have plague were tested
with the RDT in the laboratory and by health workers in 26 pilot sites
in Madagascar.

Findings: The RDT detected concentrations of F1 antigen as low as 0.5
ng/mL in up to 15 min, and had a shelf life of 21 days at 60 deg C
[140 deg F]. Its sensitivity and specificity were both 100 percent.
RDT detected 41.6 percent and 31 percent more positive clinical
specimens than did bacteriological methods and ELISA, respectively.
The agreement rate between tests done at remote centres and in the
laboratory was 89.8 percent. With the combination of bacteriological
methods and F1 ELISA as reference standard, the positive and negative
predictive values of the RDT were 90.6 percent and 86.7 percent,
respectively.

Interpretation: Our RDT is a specific, sensitive, and reliable test
that can easily be done by health workers at the patient's bedside,
for the rapid diagnosis of pneumonic and bubonic plague. This test
will be of key importance for the control of plague in endemic
countries."
- Mod.LL

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/183>.]

[See Also:
Plague - Madagascar (20): fatal, numbers growing
http://promedmail.org/post/20171017.5386317
Plague - Mauritius: ex Madagascar, NOT
http://promedmail.org/post/20171017.5384887
Plague - Seychelles (05) http://promedmail.org/post/20171015.5382291
Plague - Madagascar (19): Seychelles ex Madagascar cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20171014.5380658
Plague - Seychelles (04): poss. local spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20171013.5379530
Plague - Madagascar (18): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171013.5378893
Plague - Madagascar (17): South Africa (ex Madagascar) RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20171012.5375932
Plague - Madagascar (16): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171011.5374264
Plague - Seychelles (02): poss. local spread, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20171011.5373068
Plague - Seychelles: ex Madagascar, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20171010.5371382
Plague - Madagascar (15): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171009.5369168
Plague - Madagascar (14): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171009.5367613
Plague - Madagascar (13): fatal, more cases, exportations
http://promedmail.org/post/20171008.5367506
Plague - Madagascar (12): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171007.5366522
Plague - Madagascar (11): fatal, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20171006.5363591
Plague - Madagascar (10): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171004.5361339
Plague - Madagascar (09): fatal, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20171002.5355599
Plague - Madagascar (08): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20171001.5353252
Plague - Madagascar (07): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170929.5349814
Plague - Madagascar (06): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170927.5344842
Plague - Madagascar (05): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170922.5334851
Plague - Madagascar (04): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170920.5329820
Plague - Madagascar (03): fatal
http://promedmail.org/post/20170912.5311663
Plague - Madagascar (02): 2nd cluster
http://promedmail.org/post/20170122.4784059
Plague - Uganda: 2011-2014, ciprofloxacin efficacy
http://promedmail.org/post/20170217.4846917
Plague - Madagascar: fatalities
http://promedmail.org/post/20170110.4754927]
.................................................ll/mj/ml
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are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
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or archived material.
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Posted on 10/18/2017 10:16:00 AM | Categories:

PRO/AH/EDR> Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (11): (MI) deer

EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS - USA (11): (MICHIGAN) DEER
*******************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Mon 16 Oct 2017 11:33 AM EDT
Source: WTVB [edited]
<http://wtvbam.com/news/articles/2017/oct/16/area-deer-tests-positive-for-eastern-equine-encephalitis/>


The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services has informed the
Branch-Hillsdale-St Joseph Community Health Agency that a Hillsdale
County fawn has become the 1st deer in Michigan to test positive for
eastern equine encephalitis (EEE).

The disease is an infectious, often fatal disease of horses, humans,
and pigs that is spread by mosquitos. White-tailed deer can also
become infected.

So far, 6 horses have also tested positive for EEE in Michigan. Health
officials are reminding horse owners to vaccinate their animals since
horses infected with EEE often do not survive.

You should call a veterinarian if you suspect EEE. If you suspect a
deer is acting abnormal, it should not be handled or consumed.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (Togaviridae, _Alphavirus_)
is maintained in an enzootic transmission cycle involving
ornithophagic mosquitoes, specifically _Culiseta_ spp (Diptera:
Culicidae), and passerine birds in freshwater swamp foci. EEEV is then
transmitted to humans, horses, and other susceptible species via
bridge vectors, mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. Common
bridge vectors include _Aedes vexans_, _Coquillettidia perturbans_,
_Ochlerotatus sollicitans_, and _Ochlerotatus canadensis_. In the
Northeast and Great Lakes regions, EEEV transmission peaks during
summer and early fall, and not every year. EEEV can cause encephalitis
and abnormal behaviour in white-tailed deer, though mortality is
thought to be relatively uncommon. - Mod.PMB

The state of Michigan can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail
interactive map at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/4553>. Hillsdale
county can be seen on the map at
<http://geology.com/county-map/michigan-county-map.gif>. -
Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[See Also:
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (10): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20171012.5375169
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (NJ) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170928.5345701
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (08): (GA, OH) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170903.5291739
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (GA,WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170827.5277027
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (06): (AL,NC) sentinel chicken,
equine http://promedmail.org/post/20170806.5230898
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (05): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170730.5216046
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (04): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170726.5206247
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (SC) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170725.5203111
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (GA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170722.5197500
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA: (FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170121.4781360
2016
----
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (28): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161108.4615110
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (27): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161104.4607948
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA :(26) (SC, FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161020.4573611
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (25): (WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161012.4553781
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (24): (FL,WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160922.4506635
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (23): (WI) emus
http://promedmail.org/post/20160921.4505968
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (22): (WI,MI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160918.4496371
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (21): (NJ,WI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160903.4462461
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (20): (NC,NJ) equine, human
http://promedmail.org/post/20160831.4453085
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (19): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160822.4432006
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (18): (SC,TX) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160818.4423685
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (17): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160813.4413695
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (16): (FL,TN) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160804.4394950
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (15): (FL, SC) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160728.4374635
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (14): (FL,VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160726.4369305
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (13): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160717.4350805
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160707.4330958
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (FL,SC,VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160630.4319558
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160519.4233254
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160415.4162762
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (20): (ME) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20151126.3820076
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (19): (NY) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20151107.3774846
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (18): (VA): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20151004.3690729
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (17): (NY) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20151004.3689311
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (16): (NY) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20151003.3687783
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (15): (NY) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150926.3671974
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (14): (NY) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20150920.3659064
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (13): (NY) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20150920.3659064
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (12): (MI) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150916.3648106
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (11): (NY) human
http://promedmail.org/post/20150902.3617180
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (10): (NJ, TX) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150901.3616018
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (NC)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150820.3590391
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (TX) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150802.3552461
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (06): (SC) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150717.3517863
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (05): (FL) equine, caprine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150715.3512991
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (04): (TX) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150713.3507575
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (NC) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150712.3504235
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150708.3495693
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (FL): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150509.3351259
and other items in the archives]
.................................................sb/pmb/mj/ml
*##########################################################*
************************************************************
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
************************************************************
Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:
<http://www.isid.org/donate/>
************************************************************
Visit ProMED-mail's web site at <http://www.promedmail.org>.
Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to
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Posted on 10/18/2017 10:01:00 AM | Categories: